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  1. Patient education and self-management programs are offered in many countries to people with chronic conditions such as osteoarthritis (OA). The most well-known is the disease-specific Stanford Arthritis Self-M...

    Authors: Richard H Osborne, Rachelle Buchbinder and Ilana N Ackerman

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:90

    Content type: Study protocol

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  2. The pendulum test of Wartenberg is a technique commonly used to measure passive knee motion with the aim to assess spasticity. We used this test to evaluate changes of the knee angular displacement, passive st...

    Authors: Maria S Valle, Antonino Casabona, Rosaria Sgarlata, Rosaria Garozzo, Maria Vinci and Matteo Cioni

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:89

    Content type: Research article

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  3. It is unclear whether the well-known risk factors for the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) also play an important role in the determining consequences of MSD in terms of sickness absence and healt...

    Authors: Evangelos C Alexopoulos, Dimitra Tanagra, Eleni Konstantinou and Alex Burdorf

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:88

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common disorder, often treated with surgery or wrist splinting. The objective of this economic evaluation alongside a randomized trial was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness o...

    Authors: Ingeborg BC Korthals-de Bos, Annette AM Gerritsen, Maurits W van Tulder, Maureen PMH Rutten-van Mölken, Herman J Adèr, Henrica CW de Vet and Lex M Bouter

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:86

    Content type: Research article

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  5. PROCON was designed to assess the clinical outcome, development of adjacent disc disease and costs of cervical anterior discectomy without fusion, with fusion using a stand alone cage and implantation of a Bry...

    Authors: Ronald HMA Bartels, Roland Donk, Gert Jan van der Wilt, J André Grotenhuis and Dick Venderink

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:85

    Content type: Study protocol

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  6. Musculoskeletal conditions represent a common reason for consulting general practice yet with the exception of low back pain, relatively little is known about the prognosis of these disorders. Recent evidence ...

    Authors: Christian D Mallen, George Peat, Elaine Thomas, Simon Wathall, Tracy Whitehurst, Charlotte Clements, Joanne Bailey, Jacqueline Gray and Peter R Croft

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:84

    Content type: Study protocol

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  7. Shoulder pain is common in primary care, and has an unfavourable outcome in many patients. Information on the costs associated with health care use and loss of productivity in patients with shoulder pain is ve...

    Authors: Ton Kuijpers, Maurits W van Tulder, Geert JMG van der Heijden, Lex M Bouter and Daniëlle AWM van der Windt

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:83

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The choice of an evaluative instrument has been hampered by the lack of head-to-head comparisons of responsiveness and the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in subpopulations of low back pain (LBP...

    Authors: Henrik H Lauridsen, Jan Hartvigsen, Claus Manniche, Lars Korsholm and Niels Grunnet-Nilsson

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:82

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Persisting neck pain is common in society. It has been reported that the prevalence of neck pain in office workers is much higher than in the general population. The costs to the worker, employer and society a...

    Authors: Julia M Hush, Chris G Maher and Kathryn M Refshauge

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:81

    Content type: Study protocol

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  10. Neck and upper limb symptoms are frequently reported by computer workers. Work style interventions are most commonly used to reduce work-related neck and upper limb symptoms but lifestyle physical activity int...

    Authors: Claire M Bernaards, Geertje AM Ariëns and Vincent H Hildebrandt

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:80

    Content type: Study protocol

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  11. Gastrointestinal harm, known to occur with NSAIDs, is thought to be lower with NSAID and gastroprotective agent, and with inhibitors selective to cyclooxygenase-2 (coxibs) at usual plasma concentrations. We ex...

    Authors: R Andrew Moore, Sheena Derry, Ceri J Phillips and Henry J McQuay

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:79

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) is a disease-specific measure of self-reported symptom severity and functional status. It is frequently used in the reporting of outcomes from trials into interven...

    Authors: Jose C de Carvalho Leite, Christina Jerosch-Herold and Fujian Song

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:78

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Recent research suggests that agreement between patients' and health professionals' perceptions may influence the outcome of various painful conditions. This issue has received little attention in the context ...

    Authors: Kadija Perreault and Clermont E Dionne

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:76

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Trunk bridging exercises are often used as therapeutic exercises for lumbopelvic stabilization. These exercises focus on the retraining of muscle coordination patterns in which optimal ratios between local seg...

    Authors: Veerle K Stevens, Katie G Bouche, Nele N Mahieu, Pascal L Coorevits, Guy G Vanderstraeten and Lieven A Danneels

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:75

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Veterans of the Persian Gulf War of 1991 have reported a range of adverse health symptoms. This systematic review aims to identify all studies that have compared the prevalence of symptoms of pain in veterans ...

    Authors: Hollie V Thomas, Nicola J Stimpson, Alison Weightman, Frank Dunstan and Glyn Lewis

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:74

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Bone alters its architecture and mass in response to the mechanical environment, and thus varying loading modalities have been examined for studying load-driven bone formation. The current study aimed to evalu...

    Authors: Ping Zhang, Min Su, Shigeo M Tanaka and Hiroki Yokota

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:73

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Existing studies have examined the high prevalence of LBP along with the high treatment costs of patients with low back pain (LBP). Various factors have been shown to be correlated or predictive of chronic or ...

    Authors: Debra P Ritzwoller, Laurie Crounse, Susan Shetterly and Dale Rublee

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:72

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The main goal of physical therapy treatment (PT) in the clinical stage following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is to prepare patients for discharge from the hospital as soon as possible after their operation. ...

    Authors: Anton F Lenssen, Yvonne HF Crijns, Eddie MH Waltjé, Mike JA van Steyn, Ruud JT Geesink, Piet A van den Brandt and Rob A de Bie

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:71

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Low back pain remains a costly quality-of-life-related health problem. Microdiscectomy is often the surgical procedure of choice for a symptomatic, single-level, lumbar disc herniation in younger and middle-ag...

    Authors: David M Selkowitz, Kornelia Kulig, Elizabeth M Poppert, Sean P Flanagan, Ndidiamaka D Matthews, George J Beneck, John M Popovich Jr, Jose R Lona, Kimiko A Yamada, Wendy S Burke, Carolyn Ervin and Christopher M Powers

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:70

    Content type: Study protocol

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  20. Aluminium is considered a bone toxic metal since poisoning can lead to aluminium-induced bone disease in patients with chronic renal failure. Healthy subjects with normal renal function retain 4% of the alumin...

    Authors: Hans-Olov Hellström, Bengt Mjöberg, Hans Mallmin and Karl Michaëlsson

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:69

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The underlying causes of spinal manipulation hypoalgesia are largely unknown. The beneficial clinical effects were originally theorized to be due to biomechanical changes, but recent research has suggested spi...

    Authors: Steven Z George, Mark D Bishop, Joel E Bialosky, Giorgio Zeppieri Jr and Michael E Robinson

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:68

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The past years have seen the development of many synthetic bone replacements. To test their biocompatibility and ability for osseointegration, osseoinduction and -conduction requires their placement within bon...

    Authors: Katja MR Nuss, Joerg A Auer, Alois Boos and Brigitte von Rechenberg

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:67

    Content type: Technical advance

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  23. Neck and low back pain are common musculoskeletal complaints generating large societal costs in Western populations. In this study we evaluate the magnitude of long-term health outcomes for neck and low back p...

    Authors: Sara AC Holmberg and Anders G Thelin

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:66

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Pain drawings are widely used as an assessment of patients' subjective pain in low back pain patients being considered for surgery. Less work has been done on primary health care patients. Moreover, the possib...

    Authors: Marie Grunnesjö, Johan Bogefeldt, Stefan Blomberg, Heléne Delaney and Kurt Svärdsudd

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:65

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Plantar heel pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders of the foot and ankle. Treatment of the condition is usually conservative, however the effectiveness of many treatments frequently used in ...

    Authors: Joel A Radford, Karl B Landorf, Rachelle Buchbinder and Catherine Cook

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:64

    Content type: Research article

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  26. In osteonecrosis the vascular supply of the bone is interrupted and the living cells die. The inorganic mineral network remains intact until ingrowing blood vessels invade the graft. Accompanying osteoclasts s...

    Authors: Jörgen Åstrand, Anna Kajsa Harding, Per Aspenberg and Magnus Tägil

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:63

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Transcutaneous in vivo electroporation is expected to be an effective gene-transfer method for promoting bone regeneration using the BMP-2 plasmid vector. To promote enhanced osteoinduction using this method, we ...

    Authors: Mariko Kawai, Kazuhisa Bessho, Hiroki Maruyama, Jun-ichi Miyazaki and Toshio Yamamoto

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:62

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Nearly 20,000 patients per year in the UK receive total knee arthroplasty (TKA). One of the problems faced by the health services of many developed countries is the length of time patients spend waiting for el...

    Authors: Ananthan D Ebinesan, Bhupinder S Sarai, Gayle Walley, Stephen Bridgman and Nicola Maffulli

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:61

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Active inversion and eversion ankle range of motion (ROM) is widely used to evaluate treatment effect, however the error associated with the available measurement protocols is unknown. This study aimed to esta...

    Authors: Collette Menadue, Jacqueline Raymond, Sharon L Kilbreath, Kathryn M Refshauge and Roger Adams

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:60

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Chronic neck pain is highly prevalent in Western societies, with about 15% of females and 10% of males suffering with it at any time. The course of untreated chronic neck pain patients in clinical trials has n...

    Authors: Howard Vernon, B Kim Humphreys and Carol Hagino

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:58

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Endostatin is a C-terminal fragment of collagen XVIII which is a component of basement membranes with the structural properties of both collagens and proteoglycans. Endostatin has a major role in angiogenesis ...

    Authors: Annina Sipola, Katri Nelo, Timo Hautala, Joanna Ilvesaro and Juha Tuukkanen

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:56

    Content type: Research article

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  32. This article describes the background and study design of the PROMO study (Prospective Research on Musculoskeletal disorders in Office workers). Few longitudinal studies have been performed to investigate the ...

    Authors: Stefan IJmker, Birgitte M Blatter, Allard J van der Beek, Willem van Mechelen and Paulien M Bongers

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:55

    Content type: Study protocol

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  33. Clinical guidelines generally portray acute low back pain as a benign and self-limiting condition. However, evidence about the clinical course of acute low back pain is contradictory and the risk of subsequent...

    Authors: Nicholas Henschke, Christopher G Maher, Kathryn M Refshauge, Robert D Herbert, Robert G Cumming, Jane Bleasel, John York, Anurina Das and James H McAuley

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:54

    Content type: Study protocol

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  34. Independent of efficacy, information on safety of surgical procedures is essential for informed choices. We seek to develop standardized methodology for describing the safety of spinal operations and apply the...

    Authors: Sohail K Mirza, Richard A Deyo, Patrick J Heagerty, Judith A Turner, Lorri A Lee and Robert Goodkin

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:53

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The chondro-osseous junctional region of diarthrodial joints is peculiarly complex and may be considered to consist of the deepest layer of non-calcified cartilage, the tidemark, the layer of calcified cartila...

    Authors: Tim J Lyons, Sheena F McClure, Robert W Stoddart and John McClure

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:52

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The rehabilitation of knee osteoarthritis often includes electrotherapeutic modalities as well as advice and exercise. One commonly used modality is pulsed electromagnetic field therapy (PEMF). PEMF uses elect...

    Authors: Christopher James McCarthy, Michael James Callaghan and Jacqueline Anne Oldham

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:51

    Content type: Research article

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  37. A commercially available nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite paste Ostim® has been reported in few recent studies to surpass other synthetic bone substitutes with respect to the observed clinical results. However, the...

    Authors: Franz-Xaver Huber, Orlin Belyaev, Joachim Hillmeier, Hans-Juergen Kock, Colette Huber, Peter-Juergen Meeder and Irina Berger

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:50

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction (PTTD) is a common cause of foot pain and dysfunction in adults. Clinical observations strongly suggest that the condition is progressive. There are currently no controlle...

    Authors: Kornelia Kulig, Amy B Pomrantz, Judith M Burnfield, Stephen F Reischl, Susan Mais-Requejo, David B Thordarson and Ronald W Smith

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:49

    Content type: Study protocol

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  39. Osteoarthritis (OA) is highly prevalent and has substantial impact on quality of life as well as on healthcare costs. The general practitioner (GP) often is the first care provider for patients with this chron...

    Authors: Thomas Rosemann, Michel Wensing, Katharina Joest, Matthias Backenstrass, Cornelia Mahler and Joachim Szecsenyi

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:48

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Passive joint mobilisation is a technique frequently used by physiotherapists to reduce pain, improve joint movement and facilitate a return to activities after injury, but its use after ankle fracture is curr...

    Authors: C Christine Lin, Anne M Moseley, Kathryn M Refshauge, Marion Haas and Robert D Herbert

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:46

    Content type: Study protocol

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  41. Lumbar segmental rigidity (LSR) and lumbar segmental instability (LSI) are believed to be associated with low back pain (LBP), and identification of these disorders is believed to be useful for directing inter...

    Authors: J Haxby Abbott, Julie M Fritz, Brendan McCane, Barry Shultz, Peter Herbison, Brett Lyons, Georgia Stefanko and Richard M Walsh

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:45

    Content type: Research article

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  42. The 30-item disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) questionnaire is increasingly used in clinical research involving upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. From the original DASH a shorter versi...

    Authors: Christina Gummesson, Michael M Ward and Isam Atroshi

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:44

    Content type: Research article

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  43. The study was aimed at determining the prevalence of secondary amyloidosis in a group of Iranian patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), and the assessment of its correlation with the clinical and laboratory ...

    Authors: G Hussein Alishiri, Ahmad Salimzadeh, Mohammad Bagher Owlia, Jafar Forghanizadeh, Roya Setarehshenas and Nasrin Shayanfar

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:43

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Open discectomy is the standard surgical procedure in the treatment of patients with long-lasting sciatica caused by lumbar disc herniation. Minimally invasive approaches such as microendoscopic discectomy hav...

    Authors: Mark P Arts, Wilco C Peul, Ronald Brand, Bart W Koes and Ralph TWM Thomeer

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:42

    Content type: Study protocol

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  45. Acute scaphoid fractures are common in active adults and do lead to reasonable time lost to work. One important goal of treatment is early return to work or sport. On this background, the adequate treatment of...

    Authors: Boris M Pfeiffer, Matthias Nübling, Hartmut R Siebert and Michael Schädel-Höpfner

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:41

    Content type: Study protocol

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