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Pathophysiology of musculoskeletal disorders

This section concerns all aspects of the pathophysiology of musculoskeletal disorders.

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  1. Chronic hematogenous osteomyelitis often results from the improper treatment of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis. At present, there is lack of uniform standards for the treatment, and the clinical features of ...

    Authors: Xiaohua Wang, Zhen Wang, Jingshu Fu, Ke Huang and Zhao Xie

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2017 18:33

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Inhibition of activin/myostatin pathway has emerged as a novel approach to increase muscle mass and bone strength. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a neuromuscular disorder that leads to progressive muscle...

    Authors: Tero Puolakkainen, Hongqian Ma, Heikki Kainulainen, Arja Pasternack, Timo Rantalainen, Olli Ritvos, Kristiina Heikinheimo, Juha J. Hulmi and Riku Kiviranta

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2017 18:20

    Content type: Research article

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  3. There are few studies with an assessment of the levels of cytokines or neuropeptides as correlates of pain and pain relief in patients with painful joint diseases. Our objective was to assess whether improveme...

    Authors: Jasvinder A. Singh, Siamak Noorbaloochi and Keith L. Knutson

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2017 18:17

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Lumbar multifidus muscles (LMM) are important for spinal motion and stability. Low back pain (LBP) is often associated with fat infiltration in LMM. An increasing fat infiltration of LMM may lead to lumbar dys...

    Authors: Markus Hildebrandt, Gabriela Fankhauser, André Meichtry and Hannu Luomajoki

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2017 18:12

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The aim of the present study was to provide an overview of the literature addressing the role of genetic factors and biomarkers predicting pain recovery in newly diagnosed lumbar radicular pain (LRP) patients.

    Authors: Siri Bjorland, Aurora Moen, Elina Schistad, Johannes Gjerstad and Cecilie Røe

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:500

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD), which is two-fold higher than general population. The driving cause of SCD was considered due to lift-threatening arrh...

    Authors: Ting-Tse Lin, Yen-Ling Sung, Chih-En Wu, Hong Zhang, Yen-Bin Liu and Shien-Fong Lin

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:491

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Leading theories about the pathogenesis of fibromyalgia focus on central nervous dysregulation or sensitization, which can cause altered perception. There is growing evidence that fibromyalgia involves altered...

    Authors: Magne Stranden, Håvard Solvin, Egil A. Fors, Linn Getz and Anne-S. Helvik

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:477

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Dupuytren’s disease (DD) is a complex fibro-proliferative disorder of the hand that is often progressive and eventually can cause contractures of the affected fingers. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) has...

    Authors: Chaoming Zhou, Fang Liu, Phillip H. Gallo, Mark E. Baratz, Sandeep Kathju and Latha Satish

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:469

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The use of corticosteroids (e.g., dexamethasone) as treatment for tendinopathy has recently been questioned as higher risks for ruptures have been observed clinically. In vitro studies have reported that dexam...

    Authors: Christoph Spang, Jialin Chen and Ludvig J. Backman

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:467

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Increased reactive oxygen species and estrogen deficiency contribute to the pathophysiology of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Reactive oxygen species contribute to bone degradation and is necessary for RANKL-ind...

    Authors: Alexandra Stubelius, Annica Andersson, Rikard Holmdahl, Claes Ohlsson, Ulrika Islander and Hans Carlsten

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:464

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rheumatologic disease with a multifactorial etiology. Genome-wide association studies imply a polygenic, complex mode of inheritance with contributions from variation at the human...

    Authors: Christopher J. Cardinale, Dong Li, Lifeng Tian, John J. Connolly, Michael E. March, Cuiping Hou, Fengxiang Wang, James Snyder, Cecilia E. Kim, Rosetta M. Chiavacci, Patrick M. Sleiman, Jon M. Burnham and Hakon Hakonarson

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:462

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Cumulative evidence indicates that statins induce myotoxicity. However, the lack of understanding of how statins affect skeletal muscles at the structural, functional, and physiological levels hampers proper h...

    Authors: Antoine Boulanger Piette, Sébastien S. Dufresne and Jérôme Frenette

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:449

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The aim of this study is to clarify the following two points: First, whether a cyclooxygenase-2 mediated pathway is involved in the formation of immobilization-induced joint contracture and, second, the effect...

    Authors: Junya Ozawa, Akinori Kaneguchi, Ryo Tanaka, Nobuhiro Kito and Hideki Moriyama

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:446

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Many people with Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) report problems with vision, some of which may be due to impaired eye movements. Better understanding of such impaired eye movements could improve diagnosti...

    Authors: Britta Kristina Ischebeck, Jurryt de Vries, Jos N Van der Geest, Malou Janssen, Jan Paul Van Wingerden, Gert Jan Kleinrensink and Maarten A Frens

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:441

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Aseptic loosening is a significant impediment to joint implant longevity. Prosthetic wear particles are postulated to play a central role in the onset and progression of periprosthetic osteolysis, leading to a...

    Authors: Chu-qiang Qin, Dong-sheng Huang, Chi Zhang, Bin Song, Jian-bin Huang and Yue Ding

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:431

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. Several factors have been identified as being potentially responsible for this risk, such as alterations in bone r...

    Authors: Cristina Miranda, Mercè Giner, M. José Montoya, M. Angeles Vázquez, M. José Miranda and Ramón Pérez-Cano

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:377

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Although articular cartilage is the primary tissues affected by osteoarthritis (OA), the underlying subchondral bone also undergoes noticeable changes. Despite the growing body of research into the biophysical...

    Authors: Qiliang Zuo, Shifeier Lu, Zhibin Du, Thor Friis, Jiangwu Yao, Ross Crawford, Indira Prasadam and Yin Xiao

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:367

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Dopamine receptor 2 (DR2) expressions on B cells from Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients has been found to be negatively correlated with disease activity and can potentially predict the response to treatment. ...

    Authors: Lei Wei, Ying Sun, Xiu-Fang Kong, Chi Zhang, Tao Yue, Qi Zhu, Dong-Yi He and Lin-Di Jiang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:352

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Multiple small drilling for core decompression is widely used to preserve the femoral head in patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH). Nevertheless, the clinical outcome remains controversi...

    Authors: Han Yin, Zhenfeng Yuan and Dawei Wang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:344

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Frozen shoulder is a common yet poorly understood musculoskeletal condition, which for many, is associated with substantial and protracted morbidity. Understanding the pathology associated with this condition ...

    Authors: Victoria Ryan, Hazel Brown, Catherine J. Minns Lowe and Jeremy S. Lewis

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:340

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) are endagered by tissue fibrosis and by microvasculopathy, with the latter caused by endothelial cell expansion/proliferation. SSc-associated fibrosis potentially results...

    Authors: S. Patschan, D. Tampe, C. Müller, C. Seitz, C. Herink, G. A. Müller, E. Zeisberg, M. Zeisberg, E. Henze and D. Patschan

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:339

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Both osteoarthritis (OA) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are prevalent conditions which often co-exist. Vascular involvement in the pathogenesis of these diseases, as well as increased cardiovascular risk in...

    Authors: Kaspar Tootsi, Aare Märtson, Mihkel Zilmer, Kaido Paapstel and Jaak Kals

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:335

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex arthritic condition in which the genetic factor plays a crucial role. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs1137101 (Gln223Arg) of leptin receptor (LEPR) gene has been demo...

    Authors: Jianhui Yang, Heng Du, Jianguo Lv and Lianhe Zhang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:311

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Giant cell tumor of the bone (GCTB) is classified as an intermediate, locally aggressive but rarely metastasizing tumor. The mainstay of treatment for the treatment of GCTB had been the surgical removal until ...

    Authors: Akihiko Takeuchi, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya, Takeshi Ishii, Yoshihiro Nishida, Satoshi Abe, Akihiko Matsumine, Akira Kawai, Kenichi Yoshimura and Takafumi Ueda

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:306

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Spinal sagittal imbalance is a widely acknowledged problem, but there is insufficient knowledge regarding its occurrence. In some patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH), their symptom is similar to spinal ...

    Authors: Chen Liang, Jianmin Sun, Xingang Cui, Zhensong Jiang, Wen Zhang and Tao Li

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:305

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The balance between Th17 cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells has been shown to play an important role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent studies have shown that treatment with abatacept (A...

    Authors: Yoshifumi Tada, Nobuyuki Ono, Rie Suematsu, Satoko Tashiro, Yuri Sadanaga, Yukiko Tokuda, Yukihide Ono, Yoshinobu Nakao, Akihito Maruyama, Akihide Ohta and Syuichi Koarada

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:290

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Real-world data regarding anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFα) biologic therapy use in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are limited; therefore, we described treatment patterns and costs of anti-TNFα therapy i...

    Authors: Jacqueline B. Palmer, Yunfeng Li, Vivian Herrera, Minlei Liao, Melody Tran and Zafer E. Ozturk

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:261

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Arthritis secondary to developmental hip dysplasia often mandates implant surgery at a relatively young age. Hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA), compared with standard stemmed total hip arthroplasty (THA), aff...

    Authors: Melissa D. Gaillard and Thomas P. Gross

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:251

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Although osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease, little has been reported regarding the cooperative interaction among these factors on cartilage metabolism. Here we examined the synergistic effect of ...

    Authors: Kazumasa Miyatake, Takeshi Muneta, Miyoko Ojima, Jun Yamada, Yu Matsukura, Kahaer Abula, Ichiro Sekiya and Kunikazu Tsuji

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:238

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Osteoarthritis is a leading cause of pain and disability across the world. With an aging population its prevalence is likely to further increase. Current accepted medical treatment strategies are aimed at symp...

    Authors: Julien Freitag, Dan Bates, Richard Boyd, Kiran Shah, Adele Barnard, Leesa Huguenin and Abi Tenen

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:230

    Content type: Review

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  31. Atypical femoral fractures (AFF) are a rare type of femoral stress fracture recently described, potentially associated with prolonged bisphosphonate therapy. Evidence-based recommendations regarding diagnosis ...

    Authors: Giuseppe Toro, Cristina Ojeda-Thies, Giampiero Calabrò, Gabriella Toro, Antimo Moretti, Guillermo Martínez-Díaz Guerra, Pedro Caba-Doussoux and Giovanni Iolascon

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:227

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked muscle disease that leads to fibre necrosis and progressive paralysis. At present, DMD remains a lethal disease without any effective treatment, requiring a bet...

    Authors: Florence Robriquet, Candice Babarit, Thibaut Larcher, Laurence Dubreil, Mireille Ledevin, Hélicia Goubin, Karl Rouger and Laëtitia Guével

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:209

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Farmers have an increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) such as osteoarthritis of the hip, low back pain, and neck and upper limb complaints. The underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Work...

    Authors: Bijar Ghafouri, Anders Carlsson, Sara Holmberg, Anders Thelin and Christer Tagesson

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:206

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Cross-linked hyaluronan—also called Hylan G-F 20—is a medical device developed to treat osteoarthritis of the knee. However, it is still controversial whether Hylan G-F 20 has a cartilage protective effect in ...

    Authors: Katsuaki Yanagisawa, Takeshi Muneta, Nobutake Ozeki, Yusuke Nakagawa, Mio Udo, Ryusuke Saito, Hideyuki Koga, Kunikazu Tsuji and Ichiro Sekiya

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:188

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Animal models serve as an important tool to understand peri-implant infection. Most of the models use high bacterial loads (>104 colony forming units, CFU) to provide high infection rates. Therefore these animals...

    Authors: Norbert Harrasser, Johannes Gorkotte, Andreas Obermeier, Susanne Feihl, Melanie Straub, Julia Slotta-Huspenina, Ruediger von Eisenhart-Rothe, Walter Moser, Philipp Gruner, Michael de Wild, Hans Gollwitzer and Rainer Burgkart

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:152

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Recent studies have shown that autophagy was associated with the development of osteoarthritis (OA), the purpose of this research was to determine the exact role of autophagy in OA and investigate effective th...

    Authors: Ni-Tao Cheng, Ai Guo and Hai Meng

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:150

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The use of a prefabricated spacer in two-stage revision arthroplasty remains one of the few surgery strategies for infected-joint arthroplasty treatment, despite the many unidentified microorganisms in the inf...

    Authors: Przemysław Bereza, Alicja Ekiel, Aleksandra Auguściak-Duma, Małgorzata Aptekorz, Iwona Wilk, Damian Kusz, Piotr Wojciechowski, Aleksander L. Sieroń and Gayane Martirosian

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:138

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The maintenance of nucleus pulposus (NP) viability in vitro is difficult. The annulus fibrosus (AF) pathway reflects one nutrient transport channel and may have an important effect on NP viability in disc orga...

    Authors: Pei Li, Rongmao Shi, Daosen Chen, Yibo Gan, Yuan Xu, Lei Song, Songtao Li and Qiang Zhou

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:133

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Immediate early genes (IEGs) encode transcription factors which serve as first line response modules to altered conditions and mediate appropriate cell responses. The immediate early response gene EGR1 is invo...

    Authors: Guus G. H. van den Akker, Don A. M. Surtel, Andy Cremers, Martijn F. G. A. Hoes, Marjolein M. Caron, Stephen M. Richardson, Ricardo Rodrigues-Pinto, Lodewijk W. van Rhijn, Judith A. Hoyland, Tim J. M. Welting and Jan Willem Voncken

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:124

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Of all the most frequent soft tissue disorders of the shoulder, idiopathic frozen shoulder (IFS) offers the greatest potential for studying proprioception. Studies concerning the presence of proprioception dys...

    Authors: Jaroslaw Fabis, Remigiusz Rzepka, Anna Fabis, Jacek Zwierzchowski, Grzegorz Kubiak, Arkadiusz Stanula, Michal Polguj and Radek Maciej

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:123

    Content type: Research article

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  41. New tissue engineering strategies for bone regeneration need to be investigated in a relevant preclinical large animal model before making the translation into human patients. Therefore, our interdisciplinary ...

    Authors: Anne-Marie Pobloth, Kenneth A. Johnson, Hanna Schell, Nicolai Kolarczik, Dag Wulsten, Georg N. Duda and Katharina Schmidt-Bleek

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:111

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome (LMPS, OMIM 253290), is a fatal disorder associated with anomalies of the skin, muscles and skeleton. It is characterised by prenatal growth failure with pterygium present in...

    Authors: Ariana Kariminejad, Siavash Ghaderi-Sohi, Hamid Hossein-Nejad Nedai, Vahid Varasteh, Ali-Reza Moslemi and Homa Tajsharghi

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:109

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Low-molecular-weight heparins (e.g. Enoxaparin) are widely used to prevent venous thromboembolism after orthopaedic surgery, but there are reports about serious side effects including reduction in bone density...

    Authors: Hakan Pilge, Julia Fröbel, Silvia J. Mrotzek, Johannes C. Fischer, Peter M. Prodinger, Christoph Zilkens, Bernd Bittersohl and Rüdiger Krauspe

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:108

    Content type: Research article

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  44. In contrast to the well-characterized body growth and development of females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the pubertal growth pattern of male patients has not been well-documented. Recently, sig...

    Authors: Weijun Wang, Zhiwei Wang, Zezhang Zhu, Feng Zhu and Yong Qiu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:107

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Chronic musculoskeletal pain may be associated with changes in the balance of algogenic and anti-nociceptive compounds, and such changes may be visible in plasma samples. We have undertaken an exploratory stud...

    Authors: Fredrik Hellström, Sandra Gouveia-Figueira, Malin L. Nording, Martin Björklund and Christopher J. Fowler

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:103

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Ehlers Danlos Syndrome is a rare form of inherited connective tissue disorder, which primarily affects skin, joints, muscle, and blood cells. The current study aimed at finding the mutation that causing EDS ty...

    Authors: Akshatha Desai, John J. Connolly, Michael March, Cuiping Hou, Rosetta Chiavacci, Cecilia Kim, Gholson Lyon, Dexter Hadley and Hakon Hakonarson

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:80

    Content type: Research article

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  47. FBN1 (15q21.1) encodes fibrillin-1, a large glycoprotein which is a major component of microfibrils that are widely distributed in structural elements of elastic and non-elastic tissue...

    Authors: Octavio D. Reyes-Hernández, Carmen Palacios-Reyes, Sonia Chávez-Ocaña, Enoc M. Cortés-Malagón, Patricia Garcia Alonso-Themann, Víctor Ramos-Cano, Julián Ramírez-Bello and Mónica Sierra-Martínez

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:79

    Content type: Case report

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  48. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among hip geometry, bone mineral density, and the risk of hip fracture in premenopausal women.

    Authors: Dong-Hwa Lee, Kyong Yeun Jung, A Ram Hong, Jung Hee Kim, Kyoung Min Kim, Chan Soo Shin, Seong Yeon Kim and Sang Wan Kim

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2016 17:42

    Content type: Research article

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