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Clinical diagnostics and imaging

This section concerns clinical and research studies of the clinical diagnosis of musculoskeletal disorders focusing on musculoskeletal radiology and diagnostic imaging of musculoskeletal disorders.  

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  1. Real-time ultrasound imaging (RUSI) has been increasingly used as a form of biofeedback when instructing and re-training muscle contraction. However, the effectiveness of the RUSI on a single sustained contrac...

    Authors: Shanshan Lin, Bo Zhu, Yiyi Zheng, Guozhi Huang, Qing Zeng and Chuhuai Wang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:142

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:600

  2. The current evidence base for the management of central slip avulsions is limited from obtaining a best approach. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical effect and feasibility of repairing the ...

    Authors: Bin Wang, Yiming Lu, Tianliang Wang, Jiaxiang Gu and Naichen Zhang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:141

    Content type: Technical advance

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  3. Retrograde drilling in osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) is a widely used surgical intervention. A radiation-free electromagnetic navigation system (ENS)-based method was compared with the standard freehand fluo...

    Authors: Oliver D Jungesblut, Josephine Berger-Groch, Michael Hoffmann, Malte Schroeder, Kara L. Krajewski, Ralf Stuecker and Martin Rupprecht

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:135

    Content type: Research article

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  4. MRI is the most accurate imaging modality for diagnosing knee pathologies. However, there is uncertainty concerning factors predicting false negative MRI, such as meniscal tear patterns as well as patient fact...

    Authors: Jonathan E. J. Koch, Ron Ben-Elyahu, Basel Khateeb, Michael Ringart, Meir Nyska, Nissim Ohana, Gideon Mann and Iftach Hetsroni

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:124

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common entrapment symptom in the peripheral nerves. High-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) is widely used in the diagnosis of CTS. Virtual Touch Tissue Imaging and Quantifica...

    Authors: Zhen-han Lai, Shu-ping Yang, Hao-lin Shen, Yi Luo, Xiao-han Cai, Wen-ting Jiang, Li-ping Liao, Kun-bin Wu and Guo-rong Lv

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:112

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease depicted by synovial inflammation leading to local and systemic bone loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate by a HR-pQCT (High Resolution Peripher...

    Authors: Camille P. Figueiredo, Mariana O. Perez, Lucas Peixoto Sales, Ana Cristina Medeiros, Valeria F. Caparbo and Rosa M. R. Pereira

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:109

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Osteoporotic fractures are a major cause of morbidity in the elderly. Menopausal women represent the population with the highest risk of early osteoporosis onset, often accompanied by vertebral fractures (VF)....

    Authors: Annamaria Zaia, Roberto Rossi, Roberta Galeazzi, Manuela Sallei, Pierluigi Maponi and Pietro Scendoni

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:108

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Several studies on the relationship between morphological parameters and traumatic diseases of the knee have already been conducted. However, few studies focused on the association between knee morphology and ...

    Authors: Ning Fan, Yong-chen Zheng, Lei Zang, Cheng-gang Yang, Shuo Yuan, Peng Du, Yan-mei Liu, Qing Zhao and Jin-wei Wang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:100

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The intrinsic muscles of the foot are key contributors to foot function and are important to evaluate in lower limb disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), provides a non-invasive option to measure muscle...

    Authors: Melinda M. Franettovich Smith, James M. Elliott, Aiman Al-Najjar, Kenneth A. Weber II, Mark A. Hoggarth, Bill Vicenzino, Paul W. Hodges and Natalie J. Collins

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:97

    Content type: Technical advance

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  10. The purpose of the study is to investigate the correlation between upper lumbar disc herniation (ULDH) and multifidus muscle degeneration via the comparison of width, the cross-sectional area and degree of fat...

    Authors: Chong Liu, Jiang Xue, Jingjing Liu, Gang Ma, Abu Moro, Tuo Liang, Haopeng Zeng, Zide Zhang, Guoyong Xu, Zhaojun Lu and Xinli Zhan

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:92

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Axial spondyloarthritis (axial SpA) is a chronic inflammatory disorder could lead to disability due to the failure of timely treatment. The role of lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) in axial SpA remains uncle...

    Authors: Jing Wang, Jinyu Su, Yuan Yuan, Xiaxia Jin, Bo Shen and Guoguang Lu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:86

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (SONFH) is a chronic and crippling bone disease. This study aims to reveal novel diagnostic biomarkers of SONFH.

    Authors: Zhixin Wu, Yinxian Wen, Guanlan Fan, Hangyuan He, Siqi Zhou and Liaobin Chen

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:85

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Early detection of scapholunate ligament (SLL) tears is essential after minor and major trauma to the wrist. The differentiation between stable and instable injuries determines therapeutic measures which aim t...

    Authors: Leonie Goelz, Simon Kim, Claas Güthoff, Frank Eichenauer, Andreas Eisenschenk, Sven Mutze and Ariane Asmus

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:84

    Content type: Study protocol

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  14. Due to the unspecific symptoms of spondylodiscitis (SpD), an early radiological examination is necessary. However, controversially discussed is the need for magnetic resonance imaging of the entire spine to ex...

    Authors: Jeanette Henkelmann, Timm Denecke, Philipp Pieroh, Stephanie Einhorn, Nicolas H. von der Hoeh, Christoph-Eckhard Heyde and Anna Voelker

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:78

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a patchy and slowly progressive disease of skeletal muscle. MRI short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences of patient muscles often show increased hyperinten...

    Authors: Leo H. Wang, Laura M. Johnstone, Michael Bindschadler, Stephen J. Tapscott and Seth D. Friedman

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:56

    Content type: Case report

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  16. PIA has been proven to be a predictor for postoperative dysphagia in patients who undergo occipitospinal fusion. However, its predictive effect for postoperative dysphagia in patients who undergo OCF is unknow...

    Authors: Lin-nan Wang, Bo-wen Hu, Yue-ming Song, Li-min Liu, Chun-guang Zhou, Lei Wang and Xi Yang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:54

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare, benign, proliferative neoplastic process that commonly affects synovial-lined anatomic spaces. The diffuse type (DPVNS) is characterized by invasion of the en...

    Authors: Daoliang Xu, Jianxia Wen, Shisi Zhang and Xiaoyun Pan

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:41

    Content type: Case report

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  18. Polyglucosan body myopathy 1 (PGBM1) is a type of glycogen storage disease that can cause skeletal muscle myopathy and cardiomyopathy with or without immunodeficiency due to a pathogenic mutation in the RBCK1 ...

    Authors: Lin Chen, Nan Wang, Wenbin Hu, Xuen Yu, Renming Yang, Yongzhu Han, Yan Yan, Na Nian and Congbo Sha

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:35

    Content type: Case report

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  19. To investigate the imaging features of hemangiomas in long tabular bones for better diagnosis.

    Authors: Lei Cao, Jin-Xu Wen, Shu-Man Han, Hui-Zhao Wu, Zhi-Gang Peng, Bao-Hai Yu, Zhi-Wei Zhong, Tao Sun, Wen-Juan Wu and Bu-Lang Gao

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:27

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Like with all cancers, multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings are the norm in bone and soft tissue tumour (BST) management too. Problem in attendance of specialists due to geographical location is the one of th...

    Authors: Raja Bhaskara Rajasekaran, Duncan Whitwell, Thomas D. A. Cosker, Christopher L. M. H. Gibbons and Andrew Carr

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:18

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Cross-table lateral (CL) radiography is a convenient and feasible method to assess cup version angle (VA) after total hip arthroplasty; However, pelvic tilt (PT) may contribute to its measurement inaccuracy. H...

    Authors: Jie Xu, Baohua Su, Wenhui Zhang, Hao Sun, Deng Li, Zhiqing Cai, Meiyi Chen, Meiling Qiu and Ruofan Ma

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:843

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Numerous radiographic parameters are described to evaluate juvenile flexible flatfeet. Reference values for these measurements are based on few studies. The purpose of this study was to determine boundary valu...

    Authors: Johannes Hamel, Hubert Hörterer and Norbert Harrasser

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:838

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Classification of the spinal deformity in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) remains two-dimensional (2D) as the spinal radiographs remain the mainstay in clinical evaluation of the disease. 3D classificati...

    Authors: Saba Pasha, Victor Ho-Fung, Malcolm Eker, Sarah Nossov and Michael Francavilla

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:824

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Despite the established relevance of ultrasonography and assessment of pressure pain thresholds in patients with plantar fasciopathy, patient and probe positioning has been mostly ignored and are not necessari...

    Authors: Stefanie Ostermann, Jens Lykkegaard Olesen, Sinéad Holden and Henrik Riel

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:804

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Imaging cannot be performed during natural weightbearing in biomechanical studies using conventional closed-bore MRI, which has necessitated simulating weightbearing load on the joint. Upright, open MRI (UO-MR...

    Authors: Andrew M. Schmidt, David J. Stockton, Michael A. Hunt, Andrew Yung, Bassam A. Masri and David R. Wilson

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:795

    Content type: Technical advance

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  26. Orofacial digital syndrome is a rare genetic disorder with oral cavity, facial and digits anomalies. Orofacial digital syndrome type II, also called the “Mohr syndrome” is a very rare subtype that has been rep...

    Authors: Bita Malekianzadeh, Fardis Vosoughi and Ramin Zargarbashi

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:793

    Content type: Case report

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  27. Vertebral augmentation is the first-line treatment for the osteoporosis vertebral compression fractures. Bone cement leakage is the most common complication of this surgery. This study aims to assess the risk ...

    Authors: Tian-yu Zhang, Pei-xun Zhang, Feng Xue, Dian-ying Zhang and Bao-guo Jiang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:792

    Content type: Research article

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  28. In the management of early inflammatory joint of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), there is a need for reliable noninvasive quantitative monitoring biomarker to closely assess status of synovitis progression. Cogni...

    Authors: Hui Yang, Ling Jiang, Jiang Li, Xiuzhu Zheng, Qianqian Yao, Changqin Li, Jianzhong Zhu and Jian Qin

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:774

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The measurement of patellar height and restoration of the natural position of the joint line are crucial to total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, there remains a lack of consensus on an optimal measurement m...

    Authors: Hua Han and Xiaohui Zhang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:768

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The currently available scoring methods for enthesitis are often measures of pain but not of inflammation at entheseal sites. The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT) psoriatic arthritis ...

    Authors: Xenofon Baraliakos, Philipp Sewerin, Eugenio de Miguel, Effie Pournara, Christine Kleinmond, Annette Wiedon and Frank Behrens

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:767

    Content type: Technical advance

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  31. Intramedullary osteosclerosis (IMOS) is a rare condition without specific radiological findings except for the osteosclerotic lesion and is not associated with family history and infection, trauma, or systemic...

    Authors: Kensaku Abe, Norio Yamamoto, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Akihiko Takeuchi, Shinji Miwa, Kentaro Igarashi, Takashi Higuchi, Yuta Taniguchi, Hirotaka Yonezawa, Yoshihiro Araki, Sei Morinaga, Yohei Asano and Hiroyuki Tsuchiya

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:762

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  32. This study aimed to describe the changes in spinopelvic sagittal alignment in the sitting position after posterior lumbar fusion, and to identify the factors influencing unfused adjacent segment lordosis.

    Authors: Zhuoran Sun, Siyu Zhou, Wei Wang, Da Zou and Weishi Li

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:760

    Content type: Research article

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  33. The technique of posterior pedicle screw fixation has already been widely applied in the treatment of upper thoracic spinal tuberculosis. However, lesions of tuberculosis directly invade the vertebrae and surr...

    Authors: Yuhang Wang, Dingjun Hao, Lixiong Qian, Xin He, Yibin Meng and Biao Wang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:756

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  34. We studied the characteristics and regularity of appropriate insertion points for percutaneous pedicle screw placement in the lumbar spine using C-arm X-ray fluoroscopy. The purpose of this study was to improv...

    Authors: Wei-Xing Xu, Wei-Guo Ding, Bin Xu, Tian-Hong Hu, Hong-Feng Sheng, Jia-Fu Zhu and Xiao-Long Zhu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:750

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Plasma cell granuloma (PCG) is a rare non-neoplastic entity, with the precise etiology remaining unclear. Vertebra-affected spinal PCG has not been reported yet. This report presented a case with cross-segment...

    Authors: Renqin Lin, Shenglin Wang, Jianhua Lin, Zhenzhen Zhang and Xuanwei Chen

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:746

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  36. We developed a fully automatic three-dimensional knee MRI analysis software that can quantify meniscus extrusion and cartilage measurements, including the projected cartilage area ratio (PCAR), which represent...

    Authors: Hayato Aoki, Nobutake Ozeki, Hisako Katano, Akinobu Hyodo, Yugo Miura, Junpei Matsuda, Kimiko Takanashi, Kenji Suzuki, Jun Masumoto, Noriya Okanouchi, Takeo Fujiwara and Ichiro Sekiya

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:742

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Ewing sarcoma, the second most frequent bone tumor in children and adolescents, is often presented with localized disease or metastatic-related symptoms. In this study, we aim to construct and validate a nomog...

    Authors: Zhenggang Zhou, Jinyu Wang, Liming Fang, Jianlin Ma and Mingbo Guo

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:737

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Fibroma of tendon sheath (FTS) is a rare benign soft tissue tumor that often occurs in the upper extremities. It manifests as a slow-growing mass, often without tenderness or spontaneous pain. FTS occurs most ...

    Authors: Hiroki Shibayama, Yuichiro Matsui, Daisuke Kawamura, Atsushi Urita, Chikako Ishii, Tamotsu Kamishima, Mutsumi Nishida, Ai Shimizu and Norimasa Iwasaki

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:732

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  39. Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common peripheral nerve compression disorder. However, there is no established opinion regarding the predictors of symptom improvement after surgery. This study aimed to identify th...

    Authors: Yuichi Sasaki, Tohru Terao, Emiko Saito, Keiichiro Ohara, Shotaro Michishita, Naoki Kato, Satoshi Tani and Yuichi Murayama

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:725

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Anteromedial cortex-to-cortex reduction is a key parameter for stable reconstruction of the fracture fragments during the intertrochanteric fracture fixation. This paper introduces the oblique fluoroscopic pro...

    Authors: Shi-Yi Chen, Shi-Min Chang, Rujan Tuladhar, Zhen Wei, Wen-Feng Xiong, Sun-Jun Hu and Shou-Chao Du

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:719

    Content type: Research article

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  41. There are few reports of cervical myelopathy caused by an attack of subaxial calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) deposition. Moreover, there has been no report on cervical myelopathy by subaxial CPPD deposi...

    Authors: Dong-Gune Chang, Jong-Beom Park, Ho-Young Jung and Kyung Jin Seo

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:713

    Content type: Case report

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  42. Spinal accessory nerve (SAN) palsy is rare in clinical settings. Iatrogenicity is the most common cause, with cervical lymph node biopsy accounting for > 50% of cases. However, SAN palsy after lymph node needl...

    Authors: Hisataka Suzuki, Yuichiro Matsui, Takahito Iwai, Mutsumi Nishida and Norimasa Iwasaki

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:712

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  43. Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a catastrophic complication after total knee or hip arthroplasty. The diagnosis of PJI is very difficult, especially in the early postoperative period. The value of the ...

    Authors: Bao-Zhan Yu, Jun Fu, Wei Chai, Li-Bo Hao and Ji-Ying Chen

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:706

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Among the paraspinal muscles, the structure and function of the lumbar multifidus (LM) has become of great interest to researchers and clinicians involved in lower back pain and muscle rehabilitation. Ultrasou...

    Authors: Clyde J. Belasso, Bahareh Behboodi, Habib Benali, Mathieu Boily, Hassan Rivaz and Maryse Fortin

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:703

    Content type: Database

    Published on:

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