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Clinical diagnostics and imaging

This section concerns clinical and research studies of the clinical diagnosis of musculoskeletal disorders focusing on musculoskeletal radiology and diagnostic imaging of musculoskeletal disorders.  

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  1. Sciatica is common and associated with significant impacts for the individual and society. The SCOPiC randomised controlled trial (RCT) (trial registration: ISRCTN75449581) tested stratified primary care for s...

    Authors: Benjamin Saunders, Kika Konstantinou, Majid Artus, Nadine E Foster and Bernadette Bartlam

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:469

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Making decisions in alignment techniques in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains controversial. This study aims to identify the potential patients who were suitable for the kinematic (KA) or mechanical alignm...

    Authors: Chong Luan, Dong-Tan Xu, Ning-Jie Chen, Fei-Fei Wang, Kang-Song Tian, Chao Wei and Xian-Bin Wang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:443

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The development of developmental dysplasia of the hip can be attributed to several risk factors and often in combination with each other. When predicting the likelihood of developing this condition, clinicians...

    Authors: Andreas Roposch, Evangelia Protopapa, Olivia Malaga-Shaw, Yael Gelfer, Paul Humphries, Deborah Ridout and John H. Wedge

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:442

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Lumbar disc degeneration (LDD) is a condition associated with recurrent low back pain (LBP). Knowledge regarding effective management is limited. As a step towards the identification of risk, prognostic or pot...

    Authors: Janet A. Deane, Anastasia V. Pavlova, Adrian K. P. Lim, Jennifer S. Gregory, Richard M. Aspden and Alison H. McGregor

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:433

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Symptomatic adjacent segment disease (ASDis) is a major complication following spinal fusion. Sagittal spinopelvic imbalance may contribute to the development of ASDis. However, the exact ideal correction of l...

    Authors: Shan-Jin Wang, Shu-Bao Zhang, Yu-Yang Yi, Hao-Wei Xu and De-Sheng Wu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:429

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Although MRI is the gold-standard imaging method in the diagnosis of spondylodiscitis, role of follow-up imaging is debated and there can be discrepancies with regard to the significance of bony or soft tissue...

    Authors: Kyung-Sik Ahn, Chang Ho Kang, Suk-Joo Hong, Baek Hyun Kim and Euddeum Shim

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:428

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Charcot spinal arthropathy, also known as Charcot spine and neuropathic spinal arthropathy, is a progressive and destructive condition that affects an intervertebral disc and the adjacent vertebral bodies foll...

    Authors: Ji Hyun Ryu, Jun-Seok Lee, Chang-Rack Lim, Wan Jae Cho and Ki-Won Kim

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:412

    Content type: Case report

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  8. In the current diagnostic procedure, generally, both plain radiographs and 3D-CT scans are used for the diagnosis of acetabular fractures. There is no consensus regarding the value of a three-dimensional compu...

    Authors: Sepideh Abdi Tazeabadi, Shima Ghafourian Noroozi, Meysam Salehzadeh, Mansour Bahardoust, Hossein Farahini, Mikaiel Hajializade and Ali Yeganeh

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:405

    Content type: Research article

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  9. To evaluate paraspinal back muscles of asymptomatic subjects using qualitative and quantitative analysis on CT and MRI and correlate the results with demographic data.

    Authors: Eun Kyung Khil, Jung-Ah Choi, Eunjin Hwang, Sabrilhakim Sidek and Il Choi

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:403

    Content type: Research article

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  10. The aim of the present study was to describe and measure the occipital-cervical distance by a novel method utilizing the occiput-C4 distance (OC4D) in normal subjects, as a proposed tool to guide restoration o...

    Authors: Chao Tang, Sheng Yang, Ye Hui Liao, Qiang Tang, Fei Ma, Qing Wang and De Jun Zhong

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:385

    Content type: Research article

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  11. To evaluate the reliability of two different techniques for measuring penetration and distribution of the cement mantle in the proximal tibia after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with Computer Tomography (CT) i...

    Authors: Hennie Verburg, Linda van Zeeland Koobs, Dieu Donné Niesten, Peter Pilot and Nina Mathijssen

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:374

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Thoracolumbar burst fractures can be treated with posterior short-segment fixation. However, no classification can help to estimate whether the healed vertebral body will have sufficient stability after implan...

    Authors: Changxiang Liang, Guihua Liu, Guoyan Liang, Xiaoqing Zheng, Dong Yin, Dan Xiao, Shixing Zeng, Honghua Cai and Yunbing Chang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:373

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Modic Changes (MCs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal changes in the vertebral bone marrow extending from the vertebral endplate) may represent a subgroup of nonspecific chronic low back pain that could ...

    Authors: Lars Christian Haugli Bråten, Elina Iordanova Schistad, Ansgar Espeland, Per Martin Kristoffersen, Anne Julsrud Haugen, Gunn Hege Marchand, Nils Vetti, Are Hugo Pripp, Thomas Istvan Kadar, Jan Sture Skouen, Margreth Grotle, Lars Grøvle, John-Anker Zwart, Jens Ivar Brox and Kjersti Storheim

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:368

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Conventional fat quantification methods for rotator cuff muscles have various limitations, such as inconsistent reliabilities of the Goutallier grades and need for advanced techniques in quantitative MRI seque...

    Authors: Dokwan Lee, Ki-Taek Hong, Wonhee Lee, Eun Kyung Khil, Guen Young Lee, Jung-Ah Choi and Yongnam Song

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:362

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is a common treatment option for paravertebral or psoas abscesses (PAs) in patients with spinal tuberculosis (ST). However, its efficacy remains controversial. The aim of the s...

    Authors: Zhifa Zhang, Yongyu Hao, Xiangyu Wang, Zhirong Zheng, Xuelin Zhao, Chunguo Wang, Xifeng Zhang and Xuesong Zhang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:353

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Synovial fluid culture is the standard investigation for the preoperative diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). However, the culture has limited sensitivity and requires several days until result....

    Authors: Christian Morgenstern, Nora Renz, Sabrina Cabric, Elena Maiolo, Carsten Perka and Andrej Trampuz

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:345

    Content type: Research article

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  17. To study the correlation of neurological function in degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) patients with quantitative assessment of spinal cord compression and impairment by intraoperative ultrasound imaging ...

    Authors: Guoliang Chen, Jiachun Li, Fuxin Wei, Qiao Ji, Wenyuan Sui, Bailing Chen, Xuenong Zou, Zuofeng Xu, Xizhe Liu and Shaoyu Liu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:336

    Content type: Research article

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  18. In most institutions, arterial embolization (AE) remains a standard procedure to achieve hemostasis during the resuscitation of patients with pelvic fractures. However, the actual benefits of AE are controvers...

    Authors: Chih-Yang Lai, I-Chuan Tseng, Chun-Yi Su, Yung-Heng Hsu, Ying-Chao Chou, Huan-Wu Chen and Yi-Hsun Yu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:335

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The anteroposterior view of the lumbar plain radiograph (AP-LPR) was chosen as the original and first radiographic tool to determine and classify lumbosacral transitional vertebra with morphological abnormalit...

    Authors: Lisheng Hou, Xuedong Bai, Haifeng Li, Tianjun Gao, Wei Li, Tianyong Wen, Qing He, Dike Ruan, Lijing Shi and Wei Bing

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:333

    Content type: Research article

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  20. The need for a transfusion is one of the adverse events following total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and accurately predicting this need remains challenging for arthroplasty surgeons. The purpose of the present re...

    Authors: Chuan Hu, Yuan-he Wang, Rui Shen, Chuan Liu, Kang Sun, Lin Ye, Jian-jun Ye, Xu Yang, Shao-qi Tian and Teng-bo Yu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:315

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Lumbar multifidus (LM) is regarded as the major stabilizing muscle of the spine. The effects of exercise therapy in low back pain (LBP) are attributed to this muscle. A current literature review is warranted, ...

    Authors: Anke Hofste, Remko Soer, Hermie J. Hermens, Heiko Wagner, Frits G. J. Oosterveld, André P. Wolff and Gerbrand J. Groen

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:312

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Neurogenic origin intermittent claudication is typically caused by lumbar spinal canal stenosis. However, there are few reports of intermittent claudication caused by cervical spinal cord compression.

    Authors: Takuhei Kozaki, Akihito Minamide, Hiroshi Iwasaki, Yasutsugu Yuakawa, Muneharu Ando and Hiroshi Yamada

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:302

    Content type: Case report

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  23. We aimed to determine if composite structural measures of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) progression on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can predict the radiographic onset of accelerated knee osteoarthritis.

    Authors: Matthew S. Harkey, Julie E. Davis, Lori Lyn Price, Robert J. Ward, James W. MacKay, Charles B. Eaton, Grace H. Lo, Mary F. Barbe, Ming Zhang, Jincheng Pang, Alina C. Stout, Bing Lu, Timothy E. McAlindon and Jeffrey B. Driban

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:299

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Acute hip pain caused by femoral proximal fractures or acute hip arthritis requires imaging for accurate diagnosis. Although pocket-sized ultrasound (PsUS) offers several advantages over other imaging modaliti...

    Authors: Takashi Akimoto, Tadashi Kobayashi, Hiroki Maita, Hiroshi Osawa and Hiroyuki Kato

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:291

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) lesions commonly cause ulnar-sided wrist pain and instability of the distal radioulnar joint. Due to its triangular shape, discontinuity of the TFCC is oftentimes diffi...

    Authors: Jan-Peter Grunz, Carsten Herbert Gietzen, Karsten Luetkens, Matthias Wagner, Karlheinz Kalb, Thorsten Alexander Bley, Lukas Lehmkuhl, Jörg van Schoonhoven, Tobias Gassenmaier and Rainer Schmitt

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:286

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Synovial sarcoma (SS) is one of the reported sarcomas in the pediatric and adult populations. Delay in diagnosis and treatment is common in SS cases. SS may be excised before the correct diagnosis is made.

    Authors: Omar A. Al-Mohrej, Saeed A. Al-Jarallah, Hamad H. Al-Dakhil Allah, Rajeev Pant and Zayed S. Al-Zayed

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:283

    Content type: Case report

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  27. The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of avulsion fractures of the distal fibula for lateral ankle sprain in children and compare it to that of...

    Authors: Yoshiyuki Takakura, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Ryuichiro Akagi, Makoto Kamegaya, Seiji Kimura, Hirofumi Tanaka and Tetsuro Yasui

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:276

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Extreme lumbar spinal stenosis was thought to be a relative contraindication for lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) and was excluded in most studies. This is a retrospective study to analyze the radiograph...

    Authors: Jun Li, Hao Li, Ning Zhang, Zhi-wei Wang, Teng-fei Zhao, Lin-wei Chen, Gang Chen, Qi-xin Chen and Fang-cai Li

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:259

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Since a “gold-standard” is missing, diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a challenge in orthopedic surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of serum and synovial fluid...

    Authors: André Busch, Marcus Jäger, Harald Engler, Marcel Haversath, Charlotte Bielefeld, Stefan Landgraeber and Alexander Wegner

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:257

    Content type: Research article

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  30. To investigate the relationship between femoral or tibial torsion and hip-knee-ankle angle (HKA), mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (mLDFA), or mechanical medial proximal tibial angle (mMPTA) in patients...

    Authors: Shuntaro Nejima, Yasushi Akamatsu, Hideo Kobayashi, Masaki Tsuji, Shota Mitsuhashi, Takahiro Sasaki, Ken Kumagai and Yutaka Inaba

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:254

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Lumbar disc degeneration seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is defined as loss of signal intensity and/or disc height, alone or in combination with other MRI findings. The MRI findings and thresholds use...

    Authors: Line Dragsbæk, Per Kjaer, Mark Hancock and Tue Secher Jensen

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:253

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Only a small proportion of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are diagnosed on initial healthcare consultation. Current clinical guidelines do not acknowledge that primary point-of-care practitioners rely ...

    Authors: Jackie L. Whittaker, Michelle Chan, Bo Pan, Imran Hassan, Terry Defreitas, Catherine Hui, Luciana Macedo and David Otto

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:252

    Content type: Research article

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  33. In recent years, structured reporting has been shown to be beneficial with regard to report completeness and clinical decision-making as compared to free-text reports (FTR). However, the impact of structured r...

    Authors: Su Hwan Kim, Lara M. Sobez, Judith E. Spiro, Adrian Curta, Felix Ceelen, Eric Kampmann, Martin Goepfert, Raphael Bodensohn, Felix G. Meinel, Wieland H. Sommer, Nora N. Sommer and Franziska Galiè

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:248

    Content type: Research article

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  34. To determine the radiographic characteristics of wrists in idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome patients, we compared the radiographic parameters of the wrists between carpal tunnel syndrome patients and non-symp...

    Authors: Kazuhiro Ikeda, Yuichi Yoshii, Takeshi Ogawa and Tomoo Ishii

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:245

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Osteochondroma is a benign tumor that occurs mainly at the metaphysis of long bones and seldom arises from carpal bones. We describe an extremely rare case of osteochondroma of the hamate without a typical car...

    Authors: Makoto Motomiya, Taiki Sakazaki and Norimasa Iwasaki

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:231

    Content type: Case report

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  36. Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is a rare complex vessel malformation syndrome characterized by venous varicosities, capillary malformations, and limb hypertrophy. However, extensive heterotopic ossification ...

    Authors: Wanbo Zhu, Kai Xie, Jiazhao Yang, Li Li, Xujin Wang, Lei Xu and Shiyuan Fang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:223

    Content type: Case report

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  37. Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is a common skeletal dysplasia that is characterized by variable degrees of epiphyseal abnormality primarily involving the hip and knee joints. Mutations in a gene encoding ...

    Authors: Thuong Thi Ho, Linh Huyen Tran, Lan Thu Hoang, Phuong Kim Thi Doan, Trang Thi Nguyen, Trang Hong Nguyen, Hoai Thu Tran, Ha Hoang, Ha Hoang Chu and Anh Lan Thi Luong

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:216

    Content type: Case report

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  38. Psoriasis (Pso), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are inflammatory diseases. PsA and RA are characterized by bone and muscle loss. In RA, bone loss has been extensively characterized, bu...

    Authors: Andreas Friedberger, Camille Figueiredo, Alexandra Grimm, Isabelle d’Oliveira, Tobias Bäuerle, Jürgen Rech, Arnd Kleyer, David Simon, Michael Uder, Georg Schett and Klaus Engelke

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:203

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Varus deformities of the knee are frequently corrected by osteotomies, which should be performed at the level of origin. But in contrast to high tibial osteotomies (HTO), little data exists for distal femoral ...

    Authors: Julian Fürmetz, Sven Patzler, Florian Wolf, Nikolaus Degen, Wolf Christian Prall, Chris Soo, Wolfgang Böcker and Peter Helmut Thaller

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:201

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Scoliosis is a spine abnormal deviation, which is an idiopathic disorder among children and adolescents. As a matter of the fact, distribution of loads on the patient’s spine and load-carrying capacity of the ...

    Authors: Fatemeh Nouri, S. Hooman Ghasemi and Ji Yun Lee

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:199

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Meniscal cysts are not uncommon in clinical practice, with reported incidence rates varying from 1 to 22%. Most meniscal cysts are parameniscal cysts, which are created by extravasation of synovial fluid throu...

    Authors: Young-mo Kim, Darryl D. D’Lima, Yong-bum Joo and Il-young Park

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:190

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  42. Approximately 80% of adolescent scoliosis cases are idiopathic, and some non-idiopathic scoliosis cases caused by spinal cord abnormalities are misdiagnosed as idiopathic scoliosis. This study examined the ris...

    Authors: Wei Xu, Xiangyang Zhang, Ying Zhu, Xiaodong Zhu, Zhikun Li, Dachuan Li, Jianjun Jia, Liwei Chen, Silian Wang, Yushu Bai and Ming Li

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:187

    Content type: Research article

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  43. The conventional way to identify generalised joint hypermobility is by a physical examination according to the Beighton Score. However, a physical examination is time-consuming in clinical practise and may be ...

    Authors: Martin Glans, Mats B. Humble, Marie Elwin and Susanne Bejerot

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:174

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Hand osteoarthritis (OA) has a wide spectrum of clinical presentations and physical function is one of the core domains where patients suffer. The Functional Index for Hand Osteoarthritis (FIHOA) is a leading ...

    Authors: Yasunobu Nakagawa, Shigeru Kurimoto, Emmanuel Maheu, Yuichiro Matsui, Yuri Kanno, Kunitaka Menuki, Masanori Hayashi, Tetsuya Nemoto, Takanobu Nishizuka, Masahiro Tatebe, Michiro Yamamoto, Katsuyuki Iwatsuki, Renée Liliane Dreiser and Hitoshi Hirata

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:173

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica (DEH), also known as Trevor’s disease, is a rare skeletal developmental disorder affecting the epiphyses in pediatric patients. DEH is characterized by an asymmetric osteochon...

    Authors: Fei Gao, Guo Chen, Ruoyu Wang, Pan Huang, Jing Wang and Weihua Xu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:167

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  46. A combination of conventional computed tomography and single photon emitted computed tomography (SPECT/CT) provides simultaneous data on the intensity and location of osteoblastic activity. Currently, since SP...

    Authors: Félix Dandois, Stijn De Buck, Lucas Beckers, Darshan Shah, Laura Slane, Hilde Vandenneucker and Lennart Scheys

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:162

    Content type: Technical advance

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  47. Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (BPOP) is a relatively rare benign extraperiosteal osteochondroma-like proliferative lesion that shares similarities with malignant tumours in terms of morpho...

    Authors: Ruoyu Yao, En Lin Goh, Zhaoxiang Fan, Xuequn Wu and Yanqi Feng

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:161

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

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