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Clinical diagnostics and imaging

This section concerns clinical and research studies of the clinical diagnosis of musculoskeletal disorders focusing on musculoskeletal radiology and diagnostic imaging of musculoskeletal disorders.  

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  1. Management of comminuted radial fractures remains controversial. Currently, the emergence of on-table reconstruction technique has made fixation in comminuted radial head fractures more viable. However, the pr...

    Authors: Xu Gao, Shi-you Dai, Hai-lei Yin, Fei Li, Yong-qiang Sui, Rui Huang and Hai-yu Fan

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:613

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Although periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a severe complication of total joint arthroplasty (TJA), the diagnosis of PJI remains challenging. Albumin (ALB), globulin (GLB), the albumin-to-globulin ratio ...

    Authors: Huhu Wang, Haikang Zhou, Rendong Jiang, Zhenhao Qian, Fei Wang and Li Cao

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:583

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Our objective was to obtain normal patellofemoral measurements to analyse sex and individual differences. In addition, the absolute values and indices of tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distances ar...

    Authors: Zhe Li, Guanzhi Liu, Run Tian, Ning Kong, Yue Li, Yiyang Li, Kunzheng Wang and Pei Yang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:575

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Excessive intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation is a primary cause of skeletal muscle insulin resistance, especially in older adults, and interventions that reduce IMCL contents are important to improve i...

    Authors: Maya Hioki, Nana Kanehira, Teruhiko Koike, Akira Saito, Hideyuki Takahashi, Kiyoshi Shimaoka, Hisataka Sakakibara, Yoshiharu Oshida and Hiroshi Akima

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:569

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Intra-articular (IA) corticosteroid (CS) injections are the mainstay of treatment for symptomatic management in knee osteoarthritis (OA), particularly in the UK. IA platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections are a ...

    Authors: Michael McLarnon and Neil Heron

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:550

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous connective tissue disorder characterized by increased bone fragility and a series of extraskeletal manifestations. Approximately 90 % of OI cases are caused by t...

    Authors: Shiwei Wang, Xiaoli Wang, Xiaochun Teng, Songbai Li, Hanyi Zhang, Zhongyan Shan and Yushu Li

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:525

    Content type: Case report

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  7. Re-injury rates following reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are significant; in more than 20% of patients a rupture of the graft occurs. One of the main reasons for graft failure is malpos...

    Authors: M. J. M. Zee, R. A. Sulaihem, R. L. Diercks and I. van den Akker-Scheek

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:493

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Hip arthroplasty using acrylic prosthesis was once conducted; however, it has now been abandoned because of early breakages and wear of material. Therefore, complications or revision surgeries due to the use o...

    Authors: Hisatoshi Ishikura, Masaki Nakamura, Kenta Matsuda, Takeyuki Tanaka, Hirotaka Kawano and Sakae Tanaka

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:482

    Content type: Case report

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  9. We report a case of osteitis fibrosa cystica, a rare benign resorptive bone lesion caused by hyperparathyroidism, that presented on imaging as an aggressive bone tumor.

    Authors: Maya L. Nasser, Serge Medawar, Tonine Younan, Halim Abboud and Viviane Trak-Smayra

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:479

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Limitations in spinal mobility are a characteristic feature of Axial Spondyloarthritis. Current clinical measurements of spinal mobility have shown low criterion-concurrent validity. This study sought to evalu...

    Authors: John Charles Snow, Kyle Simpson, Proton Rahman, Samuel Howarth and Diana De Carvalho

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:464

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Fibrinogen (Fbg) and D-dimer have been used as biomarkers for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). However, previous research has reported conflicting results on the diagnostic value of D-dim...

    Authors: Xi Chen, Wenwei Qian, Xisheng Weng, Jin Lin, Jin Jin, Yiou Wang and Shibai Zhu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:422

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) sometimes present with stiffness of the cervical muscles. To investigate the pathophysiology of ME/CFS, this observational study comp...

    Authors: Takayoshi Matsui, Kazuhiro Hara, Makoto Iwata, Shuntaro Hojo, Nobuyuki Shitara, Yuzo Endo, Hideoki Fukuoka, Masaki Matsui and Hiroshi Kawaguchi

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:419

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Less experienced clinicians sometimes make misdiagnosis of hip fractures. We developed computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for hip fractures on plain X-rays using a deep learning model trained on a large dat...

    Authors: Yoichi Sato, Yasuhiko Takegami, Takamune Asamoto, Yutaro Ono, Tsugeno Hidetoshi, Ryosuke Goto, Akira Kitamura and Seiwa Honda

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:407

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders, causing significant personal and social burden. Current research is focused on the processes of the central nervous system (particularly...

    Authors: R. Meier, C. Emch, C. Gross-Wolf, F. Pfeiffer, A. Meichtry, A. Schmid and H. Luomajoki

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:391

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The patient self-report section of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form (ASESp) is one of the most validated and reliable assessment tools. This study aimed to establi...

    Authors: Tung-Hee Albert Tie, Chih-Kai Hong, Illich Chua, Fa-Chuan Kuan, Wei-Ren Su and Kai-Lan Hsu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:382

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Chondroblastoma (CB) is a rare, primary, benign bone tumor that commonly affects men aged 15–20 years. It is usually detected in the epiphysis of the long bones, such as the proximal femur, humerus, and tibia....

    Authors: Jianping Zheng, Ningkui Niu, Jiandang Shi, Xu Zhang, Xi Zhu, Jiali Wang and Changhao Liu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:381

    Content type: Case report

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  17. While supraspinatus atrophy can be described according to the system of Zanetti or Thomazeau there is still a lack of characterization of isolated subscapularis muscle atrophy. The aim of this study was to des...

    Authors: Gernot Seppel, Andreas Voss, Daniel J. H. Henderson, Simone Waldt, Bernhard Haller, Philipp Forkel, Sven Reuter, Boris M. Holzapfel, Johannes E. Plath and Andreas B. Imhoff

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:378

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The calcaneus secundarius (CS) is an accessory ossicle of the anterior facet of the calcaneus and is usually asymptomatic. This accessory bone can be frequently mistaken for a fracture of the anterior process ...

    Authors: Sabrina Kepka, Marc Morel, Franck Garnier, François Pietra, Nicolas Marjanovic, Pascal Zeller, Pascal Bilbault, Stéphane Kremer and Guillaume Bierry

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:374

    Content type: Case report

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:445

  19. A recently published article by Lai et al. in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders trying to show that patients with pelvic fractures undergoing non-selective internal iliac artery embolization may lead to a higher r...

    Authors: Hui Li and Ping Hu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:355

    Content type: Correspondence

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    The Research article to this article has been published in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:335

  20. Gout is a metabolic disease characterized by recurrent episodes of acute arthritis. Gout has been reported in many locations but is rarely localized in the shoulder joint. We describe a rare case of gouty arth...

    Authors: Huricha Bao, Yansong Qi, Baogang Wei, Bingxian Ma, Yongxiang Wang and Yongsheng Xu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:343

    Content type: Case report

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  21. With the population aging worldwide, adult degenerative scoliosis (ADS) is receiving increased attention. Frailty, instead of chronological age, is used for assessing the patient’s overall physical condition. ...

    Authors: Bin Li, Xianglong Meng, Xinuo Zhang and Yong Hai

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:333

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Inaccurate projection on standard pelvic radiographs leads to the underestimation of femoral offset—a critical determinant of postoperative hip function—during total hip arthroplasty (THA) templating. We noted...

    Authors: Stefan Blümel, Vincent A. Stadelmann, Marco Brioschi, Alexander Küffer, Michael Leunig and Hannes A. Rüdiger

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:310

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) degeneration is often seen in knee osteoarthritis (OA); however, there is no established method for its evaluation. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the Hou...

    Authors: Yoshikazu Sumida, Tomoyuki Nakasa, Masakazu Ishikawa, Atsuo Nakamae and Nobuo Adachi

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:309

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Heterotopic ossification (HO) is noted most frequently in periarticular muscles and has not yet been reported in the cruciate ligaments of the knee. We present a rare case of symptomatic ossification of the po...

    Authors: Cun Li, Zonggui Huang, K. C. Anil, Chendeng Lao, Qianghua Wu and Hongmian Jiang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:304

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  25. The straight leg raise (SLR) is the most commonly applied physical tests on patients with sciatica, but the sensitivity and specificity ratings for disc hernia and neural compression leave areas for improvemen...

    Authors: Janne Pesonen, Michael Shacklock, Pekka Rantanen, Jussi Mäki, Lauri Karttunen, Markku Kankaanpää, Olavi Airaksinen and Marinko Rade

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:303

    Content type: Research article

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  26. An inflamed and thickened medial patellar plica (MPP) caused by repeated mechanical irritation from trauma or overuse leads to impingement between the anterior medial femoral condyle and the medial articular f...

    Authors: Sung-Jae Kim, Yong Gon Koh and Yong Sang Kim

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:301

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  27. Pyogenic spondylodiscitis (PSD) is challenging to the orthopedist with regards to diagnosis and treatment. The present study was designed to assess and suggest the most indicative diagnostic method and evaluat...

    Authors: Wei Guo, Min Wang, Guangfu Chen, Kuan-Hung Chen, Yong Wan, Bailing Chen, Xuenong Zou and Xinsheng Peng

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:288

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare, idiopathic, systemic non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis involving long bone and visceral organs. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is uncommon and most cases deve...

    Authors: Ikchan Jeon and Joon Hyuk Choi

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:270

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  29. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a patchy and slowly progressive disease of skeletal muscle. For MRI to be a useful biomarker in an FSHD clinical trial, it should reliably detect changes over r...

    Authors: Leo H. Wang, Dennis W. W. Shaw, Anna Faino, Christopher B. Budech, Leann M. Lewis, Jeffrey Statland, Katy Eichinger, Stephen J. Tapscott, Rabi N. Tawil and Seth D. Friedman

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:262

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Authors: Christian Morgenstern, Nora Renz, Sabrina Cabric, Elena Maiolo, Carsten Perka and Andrej Trampuz

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:256

    Content type: Correspondence

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    The Correspondence to this article has been published in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:255

    The Research article to this article has been published in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:345

  31. Assessment of a new diagnostic test must be performed against an acceptable and validated standard to allow comparison with other studies. We are concerned that the adoption of lower diagnostic criteria in thi...

    Authors: Martin McNally, Marjan Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Ricardo Sousa, Bridget Atkins and Alex Soriano

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:255

    Content type: Correspondence

    Published on:

    The Correspondence to this article has been published in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:256

    The Research article to this article has been published in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:345

  32. To explore the value of magnetic resonance quantitative analysis using diffusion tensor imaging, T2 mapping, and intravoxel incoherent motion in the evaluation of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage and t...

    Authors: Xiaohong Lyu, Yue Gao, Qiang Liu, Heng Zhao, Huadong Zhou and Shinong Pan

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:239

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. Myeloid sarcoma is a rare, extramedullary, solid tumor derived from immature myeloid cell precursors. It is most frequently accompanied by acute myelogenous leukemia, though infrequently found in non-acute mye...

    Authors: Cheng-Rui Bai, Xiang Li, Jing-Shi Wang, Jin-Jun Li, Ning Liu, Qi Fei, Dong Li and Yong Yang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:220

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  34. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different pretreatment methods on the microbial yield from infectious tissues.

    Authors: Yuanqing Cai, Xinyu Fang, Lvheng Zhang, Xurong Yang, Lixiong Nie, Zida Huang, Wenbo Li, Chaofan Zhang, Bin Yang, Zhenpeng Guan and Wenming Zhang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:209

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. The purpose of this study was to use MRI and CT to observe osteoporosis vertebral fracture (OVF) combined with endplate-disc complex (EDC) injury and to classify the degree of EDC injury according to the chang...

    Authors: Shuai Zhang, Song Wang, Qing Wang, Jin Yang and Shuang Xu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:197

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. The aim of this study was to identify case definitions of diagnostic criteria for specific musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) for use in occupational healthcare, surveillance or research.

    Authors: Henk F. van der Molen, Steven Visser, Jose Hernán Alfonso, Stefania Curti, Stefano Mattioli, David Rempel, Yves Roquelaure, P. Paul F. M. Kuijer and Sietske J. Tamminga

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:169

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. According to most of the commonly used classification systems for subaxial spine injuries, unilateral and minimally displaced facet fractures without any sign of a spinal cord injury would be directed to non-o...

    Authors: Satoshi Maki, Mitsuhiro Kitamura, Takeo Furuya, Takuya Miyamoto, Sho Okimatsu, Yasuhiro Shiga, Kazuhide Inage, Sumihisa Orita, Yawara Eguchi and Seiji Ohtori

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:168

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  38. Several authors have reported favorable results in low back pain (LBP) for patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH) treated with discectomy. However, detailed changes over time in the characteristics and loc...

    Authors: Hiroshi Takahashi, Yasuchika Aoki, Masahiro Inoue, Junya Saito, Arata Nakajima, Masato Sonobe, Yorikazu Akatsu, Keita Koyama, Yasuhiro Shiga, Kazuhide Inage, Yawara Eguchi, Sumihisa Orita, Satoshi Maki, Takeo Furuya, Tsutomu Akazawa, Tetsuya Abe…

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:167

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. Measurement of hip rotation is a crucial clinical parameter for the identification of hip problems and the monitoring of symptoms. The objective of this study was to determine whether the use of two smartphone...

    Authors: Phob Ganokroj, Nuchanun Sompornpanich, Pichitpol Kerdsomnuek, Bavornrat Vanadurongwan and Pisit Lertwanich

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:166

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  40. To investigate the role of gravity in the sedimentation of lumbar spine nerve roots using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of various body positions.

    Authors: Jun Yang, Zhiyun Feng, Nian Chen, Zhenhua Hong, Yongyu Zheng, Jiang Yang, Tingjie Zhou, Xin Yao, Taifeng Xu and Linting Zhang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:154

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  41. Real-time ultrasound imaging (RUSI) has been increasingly used as a form of biofeedback when instructing and re-training muscle contraction. However, the effectiveness of the RUSI on a single sustained contrac...

    Authors: Shanshan Lin, Bo Zhu, Yiyi Zheng, Guozhi Huang, Qing Zeng and Chuhuai Wang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:142

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:600

  42. The current evidence base for the management of central slip avulsions is limited from obtaining a best approach. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical effect and feasibility of repairing the ...

    Authors: Bin Wang, Yiming Lu, Tianliang Wang, Jiaxiang Gu and Naichen Zhang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:141

    Content type: Technical advance

    Published on:

  43. Retrograde drilling in osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) is a widely used surgical intervention. A radiation-free electromagnetic navigation system (ENS)-based method was compared with the standard freehand fluo...

    Authors: Oliver D Jungesblut, Josephine Berger-Groch, Michael Hoffmann, Malte Schroeder, Kara L. Krajewski, Ralf Stuecker and Martin Rupprecht

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:135

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. MRI is the most accurate imaging modality for diagnosing knee pathologies. However, there is uncertainty concerning factors predicting false negative MRI, such as meniscal tear patterns as well as patient fact...

    Authors: Jonathan E. J. Koch, Ron Ben-Elyahu, Basel Khateeb, Michael Ringart, Meir Nyska, Nissim Ohana, Gideon Mann and Iftach Hetsroni

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:124

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common entrapment symptom in the peripheral nerves. High-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) is widely used in the diagnosis of CTS. Virtual Touch Tissue Imaging and Quantifica...

    Authors: Zhen-han Lai, Shu-ping Yang, Hao-lin Shen, Yi Luo, Xiao-han Cai, Wen-ting Jiang, Li-ping Liao, Kun-bin Wu and Guo-rong Lv

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:112

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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