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Clinical diagnostics and imaging

This section concerns clinical and research studies of the clinical diagnosis of musculoskeletal disorders focusing on musculoskeletal radiology and diagnostic imaging of musculoskeletal disorders.  

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  1. A recently published article by Lai et al. in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders trying to show that patients with pelvic fractures undergoing non-selective internal iliac artery embolization may lead to a higher r...

    Authors: Hui Li and Ping Hu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:355

    Content type: Correspondence

    Published on:

    The Research article to this article has been published in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:335

  2. Gout is a metabolic disease characterized by recurrent episodes of acute arthritis. Gout has been reported in many locations but is rarely localized in the shoulder joint. We describe a rare case of gouty arth...

    Authors: Huricha Bao, Yansong Qi, Baogang Wei, Bingxian Ma, Yongxiang Wang and Yongsheng Xu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:343

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  3. With the population aging worldwide, adult degenerative scoliosis (ADS) is receiving increased attention. Frailty, instead of chronological age, is used for assessing the patient’s overall physical condition. ...

    Authors: Bin Li, Xianglong Meng, Xinuo Zhang and Yong Hai

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:333

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  4. Inaccurate projection on standard pelvic radiographs leads to the underestimation of femoral offset—a critical determinant of postoperative hip function—during total hip arthroplasty (THA) templating. We noted...

    Authors: Stefan Blümel, Vincent A. Stadelmann, Marco Brioschi, Alexander Küffer, Michael Leunig and Hannes A. Rüdiger

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:310

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) degeneration is often seen in knee osteoarthritis (OA); however, there is no established method for its evaluation. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the Hou...

    Authors: Yoshikazu Sumida, Tomoyuki Nakasa, Masakazu Ishikawa, Atsuo Nakamae and Nobuo Adachi

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:309

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  6. Heterotopic ossification (HO) is noted most frequently in periarticular muscles and has not yet been reported in the cruciate ligaments of the knee. We present a rare case of symptomatic ossification of the po...

    Authors: Cun Li, Zonggui Huang, K. C. Anil, Chendeng Lao, Qianghua Wu and Hongmian Jiang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:304

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  7. The straight leg raise (SLR) is the most commonly applied physical tests on patients with sciatica, but the sensitivity and specificity ratings for disc hernia and neural compression leave areas for improvemen...

    Authors: Janne Pesonen, Michael Shacklock, Pekka Rantanen, Jussi Mäki, Lauri Karttunen, Markku Kankaanpää, Olavi Airaksinen and Marinko Rade

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:303

    Content type: Research article

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  8. An inflamed and thickened medial patellar plica (MPP) caused by repeated mechanical irritation from trauma or overuse leads to impingement between the anterior medial femoral condyle and the medial articular f...

    Authors: Sung-Jae Kim, Yong Gon Koh and Yong Sang Kim

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:301

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  9. Pyogenic spondylodiscitis (PSD) is challenging to the orthopedist with regards to diagnosis and treatment. The present study was designed to assess and suggest the most indicative diagnostic method and evaluat...

    Authors: Wei Guo, Min Wang, Guangfu Chen, Kuan-Hung Chen, Yong Wan, Bailing Chen, Xuenong Zou and Xinsheng Peng

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:288

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  10. Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare, idiopathic, systemic non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis involving long bone and visceral organs. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is uncommon and most cases deve...

    Authors: Ikchan Jeon and Joon Hyuk Choi

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:270

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  11. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a patchy and slowly progressive disease of skeletal muscle. For MRI to be a useful biomarker in an FSHD clinical trial, it should reliably detect changes over r...

    Authors: Leo H. Wang, Dennis W. W. Shaw, Anna Faino, Christopher B. Budech, Leann M. Lewis, Jeffrey Statland, Katy Eichinger, Stephen J. Tapscott, Rabi N. Tawil and Seth D. Friedman

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:262

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Authors: Christian Morgenstern, Nora Renz, Sabrina Cabric, Elena Maiolo, Carsten Perka and Andrej Trampuz

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:256

    Content type: Correspondence

    Published on:

    The Correspondence to this article has been published in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:255

    The Research article to this article has been published in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:345

  13. Assessment of a new diagnostic test must be performed against an acceptable and validated standard to allow comparison with other studies. We are concerned that the adoption of lower diagnostic criteria in thi...

    Authors: Martin McNally, Marjan Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Ricardo Sousa, Bridget Atkins and Alex Soriano

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:255

    Content type: Correspondence

    Published on:

    The Correspondence to this article has been published in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:256

    The Research article to this article has been published in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:345

  14. To explore the value of magnetic resonance quantitative analysis using diffusion tensor imaging, T2 mapping, and intravoxel incoherent motion in the evaluation of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage and t...

    Authors: Xiaohong Lyu, Yue Gao, Qiang Liu, Heng Zhao, Huadong Zhou and Shinong Pan

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:239

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  15. Myeloid sarcoma is a rare, extramedullary, solid tumor derived from immature myeloid cell precursors. It is most frequently accompanied by acute myelogenous leukemia, though infrequently found in non-acute mye...

    Authors: Cheng-Rui Bai, Xiang Li, Jing-Shi Wang, Jin-Jun Li, Ning Liu, Qi Fei, Dong Li and Yong Yang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:220

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  16. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different pretreatment methods on the microbial yield from infectious tissues.

    Authors: Yuanqing Cai, Xinyu Fang, Lvheng Zhang, Xurong Yang, Lixiong Nie, Zida Huang, Wenbo Li, Chaofan Zhang, Bin Yang, Zhenpeng Guan and Wenming Zhang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:209

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  17. The purpose of this study was to use MRI and CT to observe osteoporosis vertebral fracture (OVF) combined with endplate-disc complex (EDC) injury and to classify the degree of EDC injury according to the chang...

    Authors: Shuai Zhang, Song Wang, Qing Wang, Jin Yang and Shuang Xu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:197

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  18. The aim of this study was to identify case definitions of diagnostic criteria for specific musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) for use in occupational healthcare, surveillance or research.

    Authors: Henk F. van der Molen, Steven Visser, Jose Hernán Alfonso, Stefania Curti, Stefano Mattioli, David Rempel, Yves Roquelaure, P. Paul F. M. Kuijer and Sietske J. Tamminga

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:169

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  19. According to most of the commonly used classification systems for subaxial spine injuries, unilateral and minimally displaced facet fractures without any sign of a spinal cord injury would be directed to non-o...

    Authors: Satoshi Maki, Mitsuhiro Kitamura, Takeo Furuya, Takuya Miyamoto, Sho Okimatsu, Yasuhiro Shiga, Kazuhide Inage, Sumihisa Orita, Yawara Eguchi and Seiji Ohtori

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:168

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  20. Several authors have reported favorable results in low back pain (LBP) for patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH) treated with discectomy. However, detailed changes over time in the characteristics and loc...

    Authors: Hiroshi Takahashi, Yasuchika Aoki, Masahiro Inoue, Junya Saito, Arata Nakajima, Masato Sonobe, Yorikazu Akatsu, Keita Koyama, Yasuhiro Shiga, Kazuhide Inage, Yawara Eguchi, Sumihisa Orita, Satoshi Maki, Takeo Furuya, Tsutomu Akazawa, Tetsuya Abe…

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:167

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  21. Measurement of hip rotation is a crucial clinical parameter for the identification of hip problems and the monitoring of symptoms. The objective of this study was to determine whether the use of two smartphone...

    Authors: Phob Ganokroj, Nuchanun Sompornpanich, Pichitpol Kerdsomnuek, Bavornrat Vanadurongwan and Pisit Lertwanich

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:166

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  22. To investigate the role of gravity in the sedimentation of lumbar spine nerve roots using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of various body positions.

    Authors: Jun Yang, Zhiyun Feng, Nian Chen, Zhenhua Hong, Yongyu Zheng, Jiang Yang, Tingjie Zhou, Xin Yao, Taifeng Xu and Linting Zhang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:154

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  23. Real-time ultrasound imaging (RUSI) has been increasingly used as a form of biofeedback when instructing and re-training muscle contraction. However, the effectiveness of the RUSI on a single sustained contrac...

    Authors: Shanshan Lin, Bo Zhu, Yiyi Zheng, Guozhi Huang, Qi Zeng and Chuhuai Wang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:142

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  24. The current evidence base for the management of central slip avulsions is limited from obtaining a best approach. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical effect and feasibility of repairing the ...

    Authors: Bin Wang, Yiming Lu, Tianliang Wang, Jiaxiang Gu and Naichen Zhang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:141

    Content type: Technical advance

    Published on:

  25. Retrograde drilling in osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) is a widely used surgical intervention. A radiation-free electromagnetic navigation system (ENS)-based method was compared with the standard freehand fluo...

    Authors: Oliver D Jungesblut, Josephine Berger-Groch, Michael Hoffmann, Malte Schroeder, Kara L. Krajewski, Ralf Stuecker and Martin Rupprecht

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:135

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  26. MRI is the most accurate imaging modality for diagnosing knee pathologies. However, there is uncertainty concerning factors predicting false negative MRI, such as meniscal tear patterns as well as patient fact...

    Authors: Jonathan E. J. Koch, Ron Ben-Elyahu, Basel Khateeb, Michael Ringart, Meir Nyska, Nissim Ohana, Gideon Mann and Iftach Hetsroni

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:124

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  27. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common entrapment symptom in the peripheral nerves. High-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) is widely used in the diagnosis of CTS. Virtual Touch Tissue Imaging and Quantifica...

    Authors: Zhen-han Lai, Shu-ping Yang, Hao-lin Shen, Yi Luo, Xiao-han Cai, Wen-ting Jiang, Li-ping Liao, Kun-bin Wu and Guo-rong Lv

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:112

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease depicted by synovial inflammation leading to local and systemic bone loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate by a HR-pQCT (High Resolution Peripher...

    Authors: Camille P. Figueiredo, Mariana O. Perez, Lucas Peixoto Sales, Ana Cristina Medeiros, Valeria F. Caparbo and Rosa M. R. Pereira

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:109

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. Osteoporotic fractures are a major cause of morbidity in the elderly. Menopausal women represent the population with the highest risk of early osteoporosis onset, often accompanied by vertebral fractures (VF)....

    Authors: Annamaria Zaia, Roberto Rossi, Roberta Galeazzi, Manuela Sallei, Pierluigi Maponi and Pietro Scendoni

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:108

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. Several studies on the relationship between morphological parameters and traumatic diseases of the knee have already been conducted. However, few studies focused on the association between knee morphology and ...

    Authors: Ning Fan, Yong-chen Zheng, Lei Zang, Cheng-gang Yang, Shuo Yuan, Peng Du, Yan-mei Liu, Qing Zhao and Jin-wei Wang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:100

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  31. The intrinsic muscles of the foot are key contributors to foot function and are important to evaluate in lower limb disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), provides a non-invasive option to measure muscle...

    Authors: Melinda M. Franettovich Smith, James M. Elliott, Aiman Al-Najjar, Kenneth A. Weber II, Mark A. Hoggarth, Bill Vicenzino, Paul W. Hodges and Natalie J. Collins

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:97

    Content type: Technical advance

    Published on:

  32. The purpose of the study is to investigate the correlation between upper lumbar disc herniation (ULDH) and multifidus muscle degeneration via the comparison of width, the cross-sectional area and degree of fat...

    Authors: Chong Liu, Jiang Xue, Jingjing Liu, Gang Ma, Abu Moro, Tuo Liang, Haopeng Zeng, Zide Zhang, Guoyong Xu, Zhaojun Lu and Xinli Zhan

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:92

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. Axial spondyloarthritis (axial SpA) is a chronic inflammatory disorder could lead to disability due to the failure of timely treatment. The role of lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) in axial SpA remains uncle...

    Authors: Jing Wang, Jinyu Su, Yuan Yuan, Xiaxia Jin, Bo Shen and Guoguang Lu

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:86

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. Steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (SONFH) is a chronic and crippling bone disease. This study aims to reveal novel diagnostic biomarkers of SONFH.

    Authors: Zhixin Wu, Yinxian Wen, Guanlan Fan, Hangyuan He, Siqi Zhou and Liaobin Chen

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:85

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. Early detection of scapholunate ligament (SLL) tears is essential after minor and major trauma to the wrist. The differentiation between stable and instable injuries determines therapeutic measures which aim t...

    Authors: Leonie Goelz, Simon Kim, Claas Güthoff, Frank Eichenauer, Andreas Eisenschenk, Sven Mutze and Ariane Asmus

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:84

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  36. Due to the unspecific symptoms of spondylodiscitis (SpD), an early radiological examination is necessary. However, controversially discussed is the need for magnetic resonance imaging of the entire spine to ex...

    Authors: Jeanette Henkelmann, Timm Denecke, Philipp Pieroh, Stephanie Einhorn, Nicolas H. von der Hoeh, Christoph-Eckhard Heyde and Anna Voelker

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:78

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a patchy and slowly progressive disease of skeletal muscle. MRI short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences of patient muscles often show increased hyperinten...

    Authors: Leo H. Wang, Laura M. Johnstone, Michael Bindschadler, Stephen J. Tapscott and Seth D. Friedman

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:56

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  38. PIA has been proven to be a predictor for postoperative dysphagia in patients who undergo occipitospinal fusion. However, its predictive effect for postoperative dysphagia in patients who undergo OCF is unknow...

    Authors: Lin-nan Wang, Bo-wen Hu, Yue-ming Song, Li-min Liu, Chun-guang Zhou, Lei Wang and Xi Yang

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:54

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare, benign, proliferative neoplastic process that commonly affects synovial-lined anatomic spaces. The diffuse type (DPVNS) is characterized by invasion of the en...

    Authors: Daoliang Xu, Jianxia Wen, Shisi Zhang and Xiaoyun Pan

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:41

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  40. Polyglucosan body myopathy 1 (PGBM1) is a type of glycogen storage disease that can cause skeletal muscle myopathy and cardiomyopathy with or without immunodeficiency due to a pathogenic mutation in the RBCK1 ...

    Authors: Lin Chen, Nan Wang, Wenbin Hu, Xuen Yu, Renming Yang, Yongzhu Han, Yan Yan, Na Nian and Congbo Sha

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:35

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  41. To investigate the imaging features of hemangiomas in long tabular bones for better diagnosis.

    Authors: Lei Cao, Jin-Xu Wen, Shu-Man Han, Hui-Zhao Wu, Zhi-Gang Peng, Bao-Hai Yu, Zhi-Wei Zhong, Tao Sun, Wen-Juan Wu and Bu-Lang Gao

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:27

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. Like with all cancers, multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings are the norm in bone and soft tissue tumour (BST) management too. Problem in attendance of specialists due to geographical location is the one of th...

    Authors: Raja Bhaskara Rajasekaran, Duncan Whitwell, Thomas D. A. Cosker, Christopher L. M. H. Gibbons and Andrew Carr

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2021 22:18

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. Cross-table lateral (CL) radiography is a convenient and feasible method to assess cup version angle (VA) after total hip arthroplasty; However, pelvic tilt (PT) may contribute to its measurement inaccuracy. H...

    Authors: Jie Xu, Baohua Su, Wenhui Zhang, Hao Sun, Deng Li, Zhiqing Cai, Meiyi Chen, Meiling Qiu and Ruofan Ma

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:843

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. Numerous radiographic parameters are described to evaluate juvenile flexible flatfeet. Reference values for these measurements are based on few studies. The purpose of this study was to determine boundary valu...

    Authors: Johannes Hamel, Hubert Hörterer and Norbert Harrasser

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:838

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. Classification of the spinal deformity in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) remains two-dimensional (2D) as the spinal radiographs remain the mainstay in clinical evaluation of the disease. 3D classificati...

    Authors: Saba Pasha, Victor Ho-Fung, Malcolm Eker, Sarah Nossov and Michael Francavilla

    Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2020 21:824

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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