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Table 5 Sensitivity analysis: Associations of CLBP pain intensity and disability in the pre-pandemic vs. pandemic group of invited participants only

From: Association between chronic low back pain and regular exercise, sedentary behaviour and mental health before and during COVID-19 pandemic: insights from a large-scale cross-sectional study in Germany

Disability model Pre-pandemic group (n = 1,411) Pandemic group (n = 1,267)
Moderate disability OR (95% CI) High disability OR (95% CI) Moderate disability OR (95% CI) High disability OR (95% CI)
Regular exercise
  No exercise Reference Reference Reference Reference
  2–4 h/week 1.27
(0.79, 2.06)
0.98
(0.60, 1.59)
0.64
(0.36, 1.13)
0.42 *
(0.20, 0.86)
  > 4 h/week 0.77
(0.44, 1.35)
0.66
(0.37, 1.18)
0.39 **
(0.20, 0.76)
0.30 **
(0.13, 0.68)
Sitting
  Less than half of the day Reference Reference Reference Reference
  At least 3/4 of the day 0.93
(0.61, 1.41)
0.85
(0.55, 1.32)
1.16
(0.77, 1.74)
0.63 + 
(0.37, 1.07)
  Almost all day 0.71
(0.42, 1.17)
0.72
(0.43, 1.22)
0.99
(0.62, 1.58)
0.74
(0.40, 1.35)
Mental health
  PHQ-4 sum score 1.12 **
(1.03, 1.22)
1.44 ***
(1.33, 1.56)
1.33 ***
(1.22, 1.44)
1.67 ***
(1.52, 1.84)
Pain intensity model Low intensity
(base outcome)
High intensity
OR (95% CI)
Low intensity
(base outcome)
High intensity
OR (95% CI)
Regular exercise
  No exercise   Reference   Reference
  2–4 h/week   1.07
(0.74, 1.55)
  0.93
(0.55, 1.56)
  > 4 h/week   0.69
(0.44, 1.07)
  0.77
(0.42, 1.40)
Sitting
  Less than half of the day   Reference   Reference
  At least 3/4 of the day   1.00
(0.71, 1.40)
  0.99
(0.69, 1.43)
  Almost all day   0.92
(0.61, 1.38)
  0.91
(0.59, 1.39
Mental health
  PHQ-4 sum score   1.24 ***
(1.18, 1.32)
  1.36 ***
(1.27, 1.46)
  1. Disability: Adjusted disability model stratified into pre-pandemic vs. pandemic groups with enrolment by invitation only
  2. Intensity: Adjusted intensity model stratified into pre-pandemic vs. pandemic groups with enrolment by invitation only
  3. CI confidence interval, CLBP chronic lower back pain, OR odds ratio
  4. +  < 0.1
  5. * < 0.05
  6. ** < 0.01
  7. *** < 0.001