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Table 3 Associations of high low back pain intensity with weekly exercise time, daily sitting time, and mental health factors (anxiety and depression)

From: Association between chronic low back pain and regular exercise, sedentary behaviour and mental health before and during COVID-19 pandemic: insights from a large-scale cross-sectional study in Germany

High pain intensity Overall (n = 3,478) Men (n = 2,288) Women (n = 1,190)
Unadjusted
OR (95% CI)
Adjusted
OR (95% CI)
Unadjusted
OR (95% CI)
Adjusted
OR (95% CI)
Unadjusted
OR (95% CI)
Adjusted
OR (95% CI)
Regular exercise
  No exercise Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
  2–4 h/week 0.68 ***
(0.55, 0.85)
0.89
(0.69, 1.15)
0.69 **
(0.53, 0.90)
0.97
(0.71, 1.32)
0.63 *
(0.42, 0.94)
0.71
(0.44, 1.14)
  > 4 h/week 0.58 ***
(0.45, 0.74)
0.66 **
(0.49, 0.89)
0.67 **
(0.50, 0.90)
0.85
(0.59, 1.21)
0.41 ***
(0.25, 0.64)
0.37 ***
(0.21, 0.65)
Sitting
  Less than half of the day Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
  At least 3/4 of the day 0.90
(0.73, 1.10)
0.99
(0.80, 1.23)
0.94
(0.73, 1.22)
1.02
(0.77, 1.35)
0.84
(0.60, 1.17)
0.90
(0.62, 1.28)
  Almost all day 0.83
(0.66, 1.05)
0.96
(0.74, 1.23)
0.82
(0.61, 1.10)
0.94
(0.68, 1.29)
0.88
(0.59, 1.31)
1.01
(0.66, 1.55)
Mental health
  PHQ-4 sum score 1.36 *** (1.32, 1.41) 1.27 *** (1.22, 1.32) 1.39 *** (1.33, 1.45) 1.28 *** (1.22, 1.34) 1.32 *** (1.25, 1.40) 1.25 *** (1.18, 1.34)
  1. Model 1: Unadjusted model
  2. Model 2: Adjusted for age, sex, general health status, Charlson's comorbidity index, activity days per week, general physical activity duration, number of M diagnoses, number of F diagnoses, job status
  3. CI Confidence interval, CLBP Chronic lower back pain, OR Odds ratio
  4. +  < 0.1
  5. * < 0.05
  6. ** < 0.01
  7. *** < 0.001