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Table 2 Associations of disability due to CLBP with weekly sports, daily sitting time, and mental health

From: Association between chronic low back pain and regular exercise, sedentary behaviour and mental health before and during COVID-19 pandemic: insights from a large-scale cross-sectional study in Germany

Moderate Disability Overall (n = 3,478) Men (n = 2,288) Women (n = 1,190)
Unadjusted
OR (95% CI)
Adjusted
OR (95% CI)
Unadjusted
OR (95% CI)
Adjusted
OR (95% CI)
Unadjusted
OR (95% CI)
Adjusted
OR (95% CI)
Regular exercise
  No exercise Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
  2–4 h/week 0.72 *
(0.55, 0.94)
0.90
(0.65, 1.23)
0.75 +
(0.54, 1.05)
0.88
(0.60, 1.28)
0.67
(0.41, 1.10)
0.97
(0.55, 1.74)
  > 4 h/week 0.46 ***
(0.34, 0.62)
0.56 **
(0.39, 0.80)
0.48 ***
(0.33, 0.69)
0.55 **
(0.36, 0.85)
0.41**
(0.24, 0.73)
0.59
(0.30, 1.16)
Sitting
  Less than half of the day Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
  At least ¾ of the day 1.04
(0.82, 1.32)
1.05
(0.82, 1.36)
1.01
(0.74, 1.38)
1.06
(0.76, 1.47)
0.95
(0.64, 1.41)
0.97
(0.64 -1.49)
  Almost all day 0.89
(0.68, 1.18)
0.96
(0.71, 1.29)
0.78
(0.54, 1.11)
0.89
(0.61, 1.29)
1.07
(0.67, 1.71)
1.19
(0.72, 1.97)
Mental health
  PHQ-4 sum score 1.30 ***
(1.25, 1.36)
1.23 ***
(1.17, 1.29)
1.34 ***
(1.27, 1.42)
1.26 *** (1.18, 1.34) 1.25 ***
(1.16, 1.35)
1.18***
(1.09, 1.28)
High Disability Overall (n = 3,478) Men (n = 2,288) Women (n = 1,190)
Unadjusted
OR (95% CI)
Adjusted
OR (95% CI)
Unadjusted
OR (95% CI)
Adjusted
OR (95% CI)
Unadjusted
OR (95% CI)
Adjusted
OR (95% CI)
Regular exercise
  No exercise Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
  2–4 h/week 0.42 ***
(0.32, 0.56)
0.61 **
(0.44, 0.86)
0.45 ***
(0.32, 0.64)
0.68 +
(0.45, 1.03)
0.39 ***
(0.23, 0.64)
0.47 *
(0.25, 0.88)
  > 4 h/week 0.34 ***
(0.25, 0.47)
0.42 ***
(0.28, 0.63)
0.37 ***
(0.25, 0.54)
0.49 **
(0.31, 0.79)
0.29 ***
(0.16, 0.51)
0.30 **
(0.14, 0.63)
Sitting
  Less than half of the day Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
  At least 3/4 of the day 0.64 ***
(0.50, 0.83)
0.70 *
(0.53, 0.93)
0.61
(0.44, 0.84)
0.66 *
(0.46, 0.95)
0.62 *
(0.41, 0.94)
0.73
(0.45, 1.19)
  Almost all day 0.64 **
(0.47, 0.86)
0.80
(0.58, 1.12)
0.55
(0.38, 0.81)
0.71
(0.47, 1.07)
0.73
(0.44, 1.21)
1.00
(0.56, 1.79)
Mental health
  PHQ-4 sum score 1.66 ***
(1.58, 1.74)
1.50 ***
(1.43, 1.59)
1.70 *** (1.60, 1.81) 1.55 *** (1.45, 1.66) 1.62 ***
(1.5, 1.75)
1.44 ***
(1.32, 1.56)
  1. Model 1: Unadjusted model
  2. Model 2: Adjusted for age, sex, general health status, Charlson's comorbidity index, activity days per week, general physical activity duration, number of M diagnoses, number of F diagnoses, job status
  3. CI Confidence interval, CLBP Chronic lower back pain, OR Odds ratio
  4. +  < 0.1
  5. * < 0.05
  6. ** < 0.01
  7. *** < 0.001