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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants according to pandemic status

From: Association between chronic low back pain and regular exercise, sedentary behaviour and mental health before and during COVID-19 pandemic: insights from a large-scale cross-sectional study in Germany

  Overall Before COVID-19 During COVID-19 p
Participants (N) 3,478 2,088 1,390  
Age (mean (SD)) 54.71 (9.52) 55.80 (8.83) 53.07 (10.26)  < 0.001
Sex (%)      < 0.001
 Male 2288 (65.8) 1433 (68.6) 855 (61.5)  
 Female 1190 (34.2) 655 (31.4) 535 (38.5)  
General health (%)      < 0.001
 Very good 545 (15.7) 189 (9.1) 356 (25.6)  
 Good 1814 (52.2) 1072 (50.8) 754 (54.2)  
 Bad 1119 (32.2) 839 (40.2) 280 (20.1)  
 Total Health Cost € (mean (SD)) 7280.52
(8033.50)
8805.30
(9126.79)
4990.06
(5258.27)
 < 0.001
 Charlons’s Comorbidity Index score – score (mean (SD)) 0.80 (1.41) 1.11 (1.58) 0.33 (0.92)  < 0.001
GCPS (%)      < 0.001
 1 1471 (42.3) 774 (37.1) 697 (50.1)  
 2 867 (24.9) 463 (22.2) 404 (29.1)  
 3 622 (17.9) 435 (20.8) 187 (13.5)  
 4 518 (14.9) 416 (19.9) 102 (7.3)  
Disability due to CLBP (%)      < 0.001
 Low disability 1197 (34.4) 558 (26.7) 639 (46.0)  
 Moderate disability 1135 (32.6) 673 (32.2) 462 (33.2)  
 High disability 1146 (32.9) 857 (41.0) 289 (20.8)  
Pain intensity due to CLBP (%)      < 0.001
 Low pain intensity 1619 (46.5) 888 (42.5) 731 (52.6)  
 High pain intensity 1859 (53.5) 1200 (57.5) 659 (47.4)  
 Amount of ICD-10 M diagnoses (mean (SD)) 4.13 (5.68) 5.09 (6.58) 2.68 (3.49)  < 0.001
  Total Cost of back pain € (mean (SD)) 1082.93
(2,292.22)
1374.17
(2,779.35)
645.43
(1107.72)
 < 0.001
 Amount of ICD-10 F diagnoses (mean (SD)) 1.42 (4.84) 2.10 (5.92) 0.38 (2.06)  < 0.001
  PHQ-4 sum score (mean (SD)) 2.84 (2.56) 3.00 (2.67) 2.59 (2.36)  < 0.001
 PHQ-4 subscale depression 1.57 (1.41) 1.64 (1.46) 1.46 (1.32)  < 0.001
 PHQ-4 subscale anxiety 1.27 (1.37) 1.36 (1.42) 1.13 (1.28)  < 0.001
Job status (%)      < 0.001
 Not employed 212 (6.1) 107 (5.1) 105 (7.6)  
 Self employed 933 (26.8) 645 (30.9) 288 (20.7)  
 Regularly employed 2333 (67.1) 1336 (64.0) 997 (71.7)  
Daily sitting time (%)     0.004
 Less than half of the day 688 (19.8) 427 (20.5) 261 (18.8)  
 Half of the day 1008 (29.0) 643 (30.8) 365 (26.3)  
 At least 3/4 of the day 1166 (33.5) 663 (31.8) 503 (36.2)  
 Almost all day 616 (17.7) 355 (17.0) 261 (18.8)  
Activity days per week (%)      < 0.001
 Never 474 (13.6) 325 (15.6) 149 (10.7)  
 1 day 691 (19.9) 434 (20.8) 257 (18.5)  
 2 days 926 (26.6) 545 (26.1) 381 (27.4)  
 3 days 705 (20.3) 421 (20.2) 284 (20.4)  
 4 or more days 682 (19.6) 363 (17.4) 319 (22.9)  
Duration physical activity (%)      < 0.001
 Less than 10 min 409 (11.8) 272 (13.0) 137 (9.9)  
 10 to 30 min 623 (17.9) 386 (18.5) 237 (17.1)  
 30 to 60 min 1446 (41.6) 784 (37.5) 662 (47.6)  
 More than 60 min 1000 (28.8) 646 (30.9) 354 (25.5)  
Sports per week (%)     0.001
 No sports 576 (16.6) 427 (20.5) 149 (10.7)  
 Regularly up to 2 h 1029 (29.6) 614 (29.4) 415 (29.9)  
 Regularly up to 4 h 1230 (35.4) 704 (33.7) 526 (37.8)  
 Regularly more than 4 h 643 (18.5) 343 (16.4) 300 (21.6)