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Table 4 The explained variance (Adjusted R2) and associations between EQ-5D as outcome and predictors (entered in 5 blocks) explored by linear regression analysis (n = 941)

From: The association between different outcome measures and prognostic factors in patients with neck pain: a cohort study

Blocks of predictors   Block 1 Block 1–2 Block 1–3 Block 1–4 (Final model) Block 1-5c
Adjusted R2 Adjusted R2 Adjusted R2 Adjusted R2 Adjusted R2
0.18 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.42
Coefficients (95% CI) Coefficients (95% CI) Coefficients (95% CI) Coefficients (95% CI) Coefficients (95% CI)
Patient previous course of pain (n, %)
 Single episode Block 1 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Episodic pain -1.69 (-4.24 to 0.86) -0.96 (-3.47 to 1.55) -0.86 (-3.36 to 1.64) -0.85 (-3.36 to 1.67) 1.05 (-3.23 to 1.12)
 Mild pain/recovering -1.99 (-5.18 to 1.20) -1.44 (-4.58 to 1.71) -1.37 (-4.51 to 1.77) -1.38 (-4.53 to 1.76) -1.92 (-4.64 to 0.81)
 Fluctuating pain -6.39 (-8.97 to -3.80) -4.83 (-7.42 to -2.25) -4.69 (-7.28 to -2.11) -4.72 (-7.31 to -2.13) -3.06 (-5.30 to -0.81)
 Moderate/severe pain -11.66 (-16.52 to -6.80) -9.67 (-14.48 to -4.87) -9.54 (-14.35 to -4.74) -9.57 (-14.38 to -4.76) -2.42 (-6.65 to 1.81)
 Neither/ Unsure -4.90 (-9.61 to -0.18) -5.27 (-9.91 to -0.62) -5.04 (-9.67 to -0.40) -5.05 (-9.68 to -0.41) -4.64 (-8.77 to -0.51)
Patient expected course of pain (n, %)
 Single episode Block 2 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Episodic pain -3.09 (-5.02 to -1.17) -2.68 (-4.57 to -0.79) -2.69 (-4.57 to -0.80) -2.70 (-4.60 to -0.80) -2.07 (-3.70 to -0.43)
 Mild pain/recovering -3.77 (-6.35 to -1.18) -3.14 (-5.68, -0.61) -3.15 (-5.68 to -0.61) -3.15 (-5.70 to -0.60) -2.40 (-4.60 to -0.19)
 Fluctuating pain -6.25 (-8.55 to -3.96) -5.45 (-7.71 to -3.19) -5.39 (-7.66 to -3.13) -5.38 (-7.70 to -3.06) -4.12 (-6.12 to -2.11)
 Moderate/severe pain -25.32 (-34.65 to -16.00) -24.47 (-33.62 to -15.32) -25.36 (-34.50 to -16.22) -25.39 (-34.58 to -16.21) -21.59 (-29.51 to -13.66)
 Neither/ Unsure -2.67 (-5.10 to -0.23) -1.91 (-4.30 to 0.48) -1.98 (-4.37 to 0.40) -1.98 (-4.38 to 0.42) -1.50 (-3.57 to 0.58)
Radiating pain to shoulder and/or elbow (Ref.: yes)   1.23 (-0.37 to 2.84) 1.15 (-0.46 to 2.77) 1.16 (-0.45 to 2.78) 1.14 (-0.27 to 2.55)
Number of MSK pain sites   -1.09 (-1.42 to -0.76) -0.91 (-1.44 to -0.37) -0.91 (-1.44 to -0.37) -0.23 (-0.70 to 0.24)
Education level
 Low Block 3    Ref Ref Ref
 Medium    3.56 (0.47 to 6.25) 3.37 (0.48 to 6.27) 1.50 (-1.01 to 4.00)
 High    2.21 (-0.66 to 5.07) 2.21 (-0.65 to 5.08) 1.04 (-1.43 to 3.51)
Physical leisure activity (Ref.: yes)    2.06 (-1.08 to 5.20) 2.07 (-1.07 to 5.22) 2.02 (-0.69 to 4.73)
Physical leisure activity#Number of MSK pain-sites    -0.25 (-0.86 to 0.35) -0.26 (-0.86 to 0.35) -0.35 (-0.88 to 0.17)
Consultation-type
 First-time consultation Block 4     Ref Ref
 Follow-up consultation     0.56 (-1.34 to 2.46) -0.85 (-2.50 to 0.80)
 Maintenance consultation     0.36 (-1.40 to 2.13) -1.88 (-3.43 to -0.34)
Baseline EQ-5D Block 5c      0.41 (0.37 to 0.46)
  1. Note: The 95% C.I not including 0 are marked in bold, The EQ5D index-scale is transformed to a 0–100 scale for both baseline and outcome