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Table 3 Description of the intervention used

From: Hip abductor strengthening in patients diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis – a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Frequency (F) and duration (D) Intensity of exercise Type of exercise
Bennell et al  F: 5/week
D: 12 weeks
Supervised and home-based
With ankle cuff weights or elastic bands, 3 sets of 10 repetitions The SG completed six exercises in side-lying and standing to strengthen the hip abductor and adductor muscles
Subjects in the CG did not receive any additional treatment or do any home activities during the 12-week period
Jorge et al F: 2/week
D: 12 weeks
Supervised
The 1RM was used as the starting load
The regime consisted of two sets of eight repetitions, with the first set utilising 50% of 1RM and the second set utilising 70% of 1RM. Between sets, there was a one-minute rest period
SG—progressive resistance exercise programme (PRE) that included four separate hip abduction/adduction movements performed with free weights on two gym machines (knee flexion–extension and abduction and adduction) (supplementary material). A five-minute warm-up on an exercise bicycle followed the activities
Singh et al  F: 5/week
D: 6 weeks
supervised
Subjects began by performing 50 percent of their one-repetition maximum. After then, a new 1 RM was measured every week, and the load was gradually raised
The duration of the contraction was 5–10 s, depending on the tolerance of the subjects. Between repetitions, there was a ten-second break and a one-minute break between sets
SG — Side-lying with weight cuffs and traditional exercises were used to improve the hip abductor muscles
CG – received the traditional knee exercises. Static quadriceps, straight leg lift and short arc terminal extension
Yuenyongviwat et al F: 2/week
D: 10 weeks
Supervised
4 sets- of 10 repetitions twice a day SG—Hip abductor and quadriceps strengthening activities were performed. Subjects were instructed to lie down in a side-lying position and abduct the hip to a 45-degree abduction posture, which they held for 10 s. The patient's ankle was wrapped with a sandbag which was weighted per protocol while completing quadriceps workouts or hip abduction exercises
Only quadriceps strengthening exercises were done by CG
Wang et al F: 1/day
D: 6 weeks
Supervised
3 sets of 10 repetitions
progression to a greater resistance level was possible when subjects could perform 20 repetitions
SG – hip abductor strength–based exercises
CG – Quadriceps femoris strength–based exercises
Elizabeth A. Sled et al  F:1/day
D: 3 to 4 times per week for 8 weeks
Unsupervised – Home based
Progression to greater resistance levels occurred when participants could perform the exercise without fatigue for 20 repetitions SG-Side-lying resistive exercises for the hip abductor muscles, progressing to using resistance bands, standing single-leg stabilization exercises, progressing to standing hip abduction using resistance bands
CG-daily activities and refrain from beginning any new exercise program
Chaudhary Ashok F:1/day
D:6 days for weeks
Supervised
3 sets of 10 repetitions at 10 RM performed in side lying with resistance 3 sets of 10 repetitions at moderate resistance performed in standing with band 3 sets of 10 repetitions. Performed in unipedal stance with 5 s hold SG- hip abductor strength–based exercises
CG- Short wave diathermy, stretching exercises, range of motion exercises, strengthening exercises
  1. CG Control group, SG Strengthening group, F Frequency, D Duration, 1RM One repetition Maximum