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Table 3 Interaction between occupational cold and biomechanical exposures in relation to symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome

From: Occupational cold exposure and symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome – a population-based study

Exposure variables   Carpal tunnel syndrome/Total Simple analyses Multiple analyses a Relative excess risk due to interaction b
Proportion of working hours   N OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Contact cooling Heavy manual handling c     
Never Never 196/2,631 Reference Reference  
Never Every day 17/117 2.13 (1.25–3.64) 2.15 (1.22–3.80)  
Half the time or more Never 5/31 2.56 (0.97–6.78) 1.61 (0.52–5.02)  
Half the time or more Every day 25/90 4.80 (2.96–7.79) 4.22 (2.18–8.16) 1.46
Ambient cooling Heavy manual handling c     
Never Never 178/2,324 Reference Reference  
Never Every day 11/89 1.72 (0.90–3.30) 1.42 (0.70–2.88)  
Half the time or more Never 4/72 0.72 (0.26–2.00) 0.68 (0.24–1.94)  
Half the time or more Every day 30/123 3.92 (2.53–6.09) 3.45 (1.92–6.22) 2.35
Severe ambient cooling Heavy manual handling c     
Never Never 175/2,470 Reference Reference  
Never Every day 20/122 2.59 (1.56–4.29) 2.64 (1.53–4.55)  
Half the time or more Never 6/60 1.49 (0.63–3.53) 0.94 (0.33–2.70)  
Half the time or more Every day 28/90 6.04 (3.76–9.71) 7.25 (3.88–13.53) 4.67
  1. aAdjusted for age, gender, body mass index, current daily smoking, diabetes mellitus, joint disease, and hand-arm vibration exposure
  2. bCalculated based on odds ratios from multiple analyses, where a value > 0 indicate a positive additive interaction effect
  3. cLifting at least 15 kg per unit multiple times per day
  4. Bold values are significant at the 0.05 level