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Table 1 The advantage and disadvantage of each assessment for bone healing

From: The progress in quantitative evaluation of callus during distraction osteogenesis

Method Advantage Disadvantage
Radiography Simple, fast and convenient;
The most common assessment for bone union
Limited sensitivity for early callus formation
DXA Golden standard for BMD;
Indirect assessment for bony microstructural
Expensive;
Limited for clinical application;
Limited for limb assessment
Ultrasound Cheap, portable, ionizing radiation free
and early monitoring
Relatively limited sensitivity;
Limited access to the force line of limb;
Unaccessible for later osteotomy end space
QCT High accuracy and small error;
Directly related to histological specimens
Expensive;
High radiation dose;
Limited for clinical application
Biomechanical evaluation Directly assessed the bone quality Usually utilized in lab work
Biochemical markers Theoretical basis for delayed bone union Limited for clinical application