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Table 3 OSD score variations by sociodemographic and clinical characteristics

From: A cross-sectional hospital-based study of correlates of disability in patients with chronic low back pain in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Variable OSD score mean ± SD t or F statistics p-value
Age
 18 – 27 46.3 ± 10.7 2.28 0.059
 28 – 37 40.3 ± 10.1
 38 – 47 40.2 ± 10.9
 48 – 57 42.6 ± 10.7
 58 +  40.9 ± 11.9
Gender
 Male 45.7 ± 11.0 8.65 0.000**
 Female 38.1 ± 9.7
Marital status
 Single 43.0 ± 11.5 1.27 0.284
 Married 41.4 ± 10.8
 Separated 40.6 ± 10.7
 Widowed 39.6 ± 11.1
Body Mass Index
 Underweight 41.0 ± 9.9 1.32 0.266
 Normal 40.0 ± 10.6
 Overweight 42.2 ± 11.3
 Obese 41.4 ± 10.9
Education level
 No formal education 42.4 ± 12.0 0.69 0.559
 Primary 41.3 ± 10.6
 Secondary 40.5 ± 11.2
 Tertiary 40.9 ± 9.9
Income category
 Poor 40.7 ± 10.6 0.645 0.628
 Low emerging middle 41.0 ± 11.0
 Emerging middle 41.3 ± 11.2
 Realised middle 41.6 ± 10.9
 Upper middle 44.1 ± 10.2
Exercise
 No 41.9 ± 11.2 1.95 0.052
 Yes 40.1 ± 10.3
Cigarette smoking
 No 41.1 ± 10.4 4.83 0.008*
 Yes, 1 – 10 per day 39.5 ± 11.4
 Yes. More than 11 43.9 ± 11.2
Alcohol consumption
 No 41.1 ± 10.4 0.79 0.454
 Occasional 40.6 ± 11.5
 Frequent 42.2 ± 11.2
Type of work
 Semisedentary 40.0 ± 10.4 4.98 0.007*
 Sedentary 43.0 ± 12.0
 Manual work 42.8 ± 10.9
Sitting posture
 Straight back 43.7 ± 10.3 2.45 0.063
 Stooped 42.6 ± 11.4
 Forward inclination 40.0 ± 10.8
 Backward inclination 40.9 ± 10.8
LBP duration
 Less than 3-months (non-chronic) 40.1 ± 10.5 -4.56 0.000**
 3-months and above (chronic) 45.1 ± 11.2
LBP severity
 Mild 40.2 ± 10.5 3.27 0.039*
 Moderate 42.7 ± 11.7
 Severe 42.2 ± 10.5
Sciatica
 Yes 42.0 ± 11.8 0.86 0.389
 No 41.0 ± 10.7
  1. SD standard deviation; ** p < 0.001; * p < 0.05