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Table 1 Descriptive statistics

From: A cross-sectional hospital-based study of correlates of disability in patients with chronic low back pain in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Variable Overall (N = 554) Non-chronic Low Back Pain (n = 431) Chronic Low Back Pain (n = 123)
n % n % n %
Age (Mean ± SD) 45.8 ± 10.7      
 18 – 27 19 3.4 13 3.0 6 4.9
 28 – 37 111 20.0 90 20.9 21 17.1
 38 – 47 176 31.8 141 32.7 35 28.5
 48 – 57 163 29.4 129 29.9 34 27.6
 58 +  85 15.3 58 13.5 27 22.0
Gender
 Male 228 41.2 183 42.5 45 36.6
 Female 326 58.8 248 57.5 78 63.4
Marital status
 Single 80 14.4 60 13.9 20 16.3
 Married 266 48.0 201 46.6 65 52.8
 Separated 157 28.3 129 29.9 28 22.8
 Widowed 51 9.2 41 9.5 10 8.1
Body Mass Index
 Underweight 51 9.2 44 10.2 7 5.7
 Normal 166 30.0 154 35.7 12 9.8
 Overweight 202 36.5 140 32.5 62 50.4
 Obese 135 24.4 93 21.6 42 34.1
Education level
 No formal education 106 19.1 74 17.2 32 26.0
 Primary 194 35.0 164 38.1 30 24.4
 Secondary 144 26.0 121 28.1 23 18.7
 Tertiary 110 19.9 72 16.7 38 30.9
Income category
 Poor 104 18.8 68 15.8 36 29.3
 Low emerging middle 273 49.3 224 52.0 49 39.9
 Emerging middle 96 17.3 78 18.1 18 6.5
 Realised middle 49 8.8 39 9.0 10 8.1
 Upper middle 32 5.8 22 5.1 10 8.1
Exercise
 No 338 61.0 245 56.8 93 75.6
 Yes 216 39.0 186 43.2 30 24.4
Cigarette smoking
 No 324 58.5 294 68.2 30 24.4
 Yes, 1 – 10 per day 126 22.7 94 21.8 32 26.0
 Yes. More than 11 104 18.8 43 10.0 61 49.6
Alcohol consumption
 No 264 47.7 234 54.3 30 24.4
 Occasional 148 26.7 118 27.4 30 24
 Frequent 142 25.6 79 18.3 63 51.2
Type of work
 Semisedentary 311 56.1 301 69.8 10 8.1
 Sedentary 80 14.4 37 8.6 43 35.0
 Manual work 163 29.4 93 21.6 70 56.9
Sitting posture
 Straight back 58 10.5 39 9.1 19 15.4
 Stooped 106 19.1 66 15.3 40 32.5
 Forward inclination 189 34.1 138 32.0 51 41.5
 Backward inclination 201 36.3 188 43.6 13 10.6
LBP severity
 Mild 303 54.7 297 68.9 6 4.9
 Moderate 147 26.5 91 21.1 56 45.5
 Severe 104 18.8 43 10.0 61 49.6
Sciatica
 Yes 106 19.1 84 19.5 22 17.9
No 448 80.9 347 80.5 101 82.1
Illness behaviour (Mean ± SD) 36.6 ± 11.4   32.36 ± 9.2   51.6 ± 2.7  
Fear avoidance belief
 Work subscale (Mean ± SD) 26.3 ± 7.2   23.15 ± 4.5   37.3 ± 1.9  
 Physical activity subscale (Mean ± SD) 11.1 ± 4.3   9.13 ± 2.2   18.1 ± 1.9  
Disability (OSD score mean ± SD) 41.2 ± 10.9   40.12 ± 10.5   45.1 ± 11.2  
  1. SD Standard Deviation