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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Efficacy of non-surgical management and functional outcomes of partial ACL tears. A systematic review of randomised trials

     Participants (Control Group) Participants (Intervention Group) Intervention Details
Reference RCT Inclusion/Exclusion criteria Diagnostic Criteria N Age (years): M (± SD), range BMI (kg/m2) Injury Characteristics N Age (years): M (± SD), range BMI (kg/m2) Injury Characteristics Intervention
Buyukturan et al. [27] single-blinded RCT Inclusion: sedentary occupation or low activity level and had VAS scores < 3. Exclusion: participants with meniscus injuries, meniscus tears, chondral lesions, other ligament laxities, a grade IV injury based on the Lachman test, generalised laxity, and/or a BMI > 30 kg/cm2 were excluded from the study Conducted by physician based on the patient histories, physical examinations, and diagnostic imaging 29 (15 females, 14 males) 24.7 (± 6.2) years 24.9 + -5.7 Dominant side R/L, 26/3; Involved dominant/Non-dominant, 22/7; Duration of the symptoms, 21.8 ± 4.8 months; Education status 13.7 ± 1.7 years 29 (13 females, 16 males) 26.1 (± 7.4) years 24.6 + -4.1 Dominant side R/L, 25/4; Involved dominant/Non-dominant, 20/9; Duration of the symptoms, 20.1 ± 8.6 months; Education status 14.2 ± 2.6 years 3 × 60 min sessions for 24 weeks of Tai Chi
-Yang style (10 forms) by experienced instructor (> 5 years’ experience)
Celik et al., [28] single-blinded RCT Inclusion: sedentary occupation or low activity level, required conservative care rather than surgery, and had VAS scores < 3. Exclusion: participants with meniscus injuries, meniscus tears, chondral lesions, other ligament laxities, a grade IV injury based on the Lachman test, a generalised laxity, and/or a BMI > 30 kg/cm2 were excluded from the study Conducted by physician based on the patient histories, physical examinations, and diagnostic imaging 26 (24 females, 2 males) 25.9 (± 7.5) years,a 22–45 years 25.8 ± 4.2 Dominant side R/L, 20/6; Involved dominant/Non-dominant, 14/10; Duration of the symptoms, 6.2 ± 1.2 months 24 (22 females, 2 males) 25.2 (± 5.3) years, 20–43 years 25.5 ± 5.1 Dominant side R/L, 20/4; Involved dominant/Non-dominant, 16/8; Duration of the symptoms, 5.4 ± 2.4 months 3 × 60-min Pilates classes per week for 6 weeks run by a trained physical therapist. Home programme was given to participants to engage in after the initial 6 weeks until the end of the study
  1. aAges reported in table, note this is different to the ages reported in the body of the text of the article. Values expressed as mean ± SD, M mean, SD standard deviation