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Table 5 PSQI, STOP-Bang, and ESS scores according to number of TMD/AXIS I diagnosis

From: Poorer sleep quality in patients with chronic temporomandibular disorders compared to healthy controls

  Number of TMD Axis I diagnosis   
Parameter 1 (n = 88) 2 (n = 120) 3 (n = 125) 4 (n = 170) p-value Post-hoc analysis
PSQI global scores 6.18 ± 2.77 5.96 ± 2.65 5.90 ± 2.72 6.75 ± 2.84 0.028* 2 < 4, 3 < 4
STOP-Bang total scores 1.90 ± 1.51 1.95 ± 2.82 1.88 ± 1.89 1.49 ± 0.87 0.125  
ESS total scores 5.73 ± 3.83 6.59 ± 3.41 6.65 ± 3.60 7.40 ± 3.79 0.005** 1 < 4
  1. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation. The results were obtained from ANOVA and post-hoc analysis. p-Value significance was set at < 0.05. *: p-value < 0.05, **: p-value < 0.01. TMD: temporomandibular disorder, PSQI: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, STOP-Bang: The snoring, tiredness, observed apnea, high blood pressure (STOP)-BMI, age, neck circumference, and gender (Bang), ESS: Epworth sleepiness scale. When multiple diagnoses were allowed for each patient, the number of diagnoses the patient had was expressed numerically. 1: In the case of having only one diagnosis among the four diagnoses of TMD based on TMD Axis I (myofascial pain, disc dis-placement, arthralgia, and headache attributed to TMD), 2: having two of the four diagnoses, 3: having three of the four diagnoses, and 4: having all of the four diagnoses