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Table 3 Descriptive statistics of disease characteristics and their relationship with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in chronic TMD patients

From: Poorer sleep quality in patients with chronic temporomandibular disorders compared to healthy controls

   PSQI Poor sleepers (PSQI > 5)
Parameter Subgroup n (%) PSQI global score p-valuea Poor sleeper n (%) p-valueb
Demographics of TMD patients (n = 503)
Age groups
  Under 20 years old (10s) 61 (12.1) 4.69 ± 2.34 < 0.001*** 20/61 (32.8) < 0.001***
  20–30 years old (20s) 208 (41.4) 5.85 ± 2.45 10s < 20s = 30s = over 40c 104/208 (50.0)  
  31–40 years old (30s) 93 (18.5) 6.87 ± 2.91 20s < 30s = over 40d 61/93 (65.6)  
  More than 40 years old (over 40) 141 (28.0) 7.11 ± 2.90   101/141 (71.6)  
Sex
  Male 170 (33.8) 5.65 ± 2.64 < 0.001*** 77/170 (45.3) < 0.001***
  Female 333 (66.2) 6.56 ± 2.79   209/333 (62.8)  
TMD Axis I diagnosis in TMD patients(Multiple diagnoses are allowed per patient)
Myofascial pain
  [presence] 465 (92.4) 6.31 ± 2.82 0.023* 268/465 (57.6) 0.145
  [absence] 38 (7.6) 5.50 ± 1.98   18/38 (47.4)  
 Disc displacement
  [presence] 278 (55.3) 6.27 ± 2.77 0.862 159/278 (57.2) 0.928
  [absence] 225 (44.7) 6.23 ± 2.78   127/225 (56.4)  
 Arthralgia
  [presence] 355 (70.6) 6.22 ± 2.88 0.888 203/355 (57.2) 0.448
  [absence] 148 (29.4) 6.26 ± 2.72   83/148 (56.1)  
Headache attributed to TMD
  [presence] 285 (56.7) 6.58 ± 2.85 0.002** 178/285 (62.5) 0.005**
  [absence] 218 (43.3) 5.82 ± 2.60   108/218 (49.5)  
  1. TMD temporomandibular disorder, PSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, SD standard deviation
  2. p-Value significance was set at < 0.05. *: p-value < 0.05, **: p-value < 0.01, ***: p-value < 0.001
  3. a: The p-value for the test of the mean difference of the PSQI global score between subgroups. b: The p-value for the comparison results of the number (%) between subgroups via χ2 test and Boneferroni correction. The mean difference among age subgroups was obtained by one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc analysis. c: The PSQI global scores of subgroups over 20 years of age were significantly higher than that of 10s, and the scores of 20s, 30s, and over 40 were not significantly different. d: The PSQI global scores over 30 years of age were significantly higher than that of 20s, and the scores of 30s and over 40 were not significantly different