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Table 3 Summary of the GRADE assessment

From: Measurement properties of smartphone applications for the measurement of neck range of motion: a systematic review and meta analyses

Outcome measure/ measurement property Studies Sample Size ROB Criteria for good Measurement Properties ROB overall rating GRADE - quality of evidence
  Inconsistency Impreciseness Indirectness Overall Quality of Evidence
Asymptomatic Clinometer App         
 Reliability (Intra rater) Ullucci P.A. et al., 2019 [33] 38 D (+) No No No Moderate
Tousignant-Laflamme et al. 2013 [32] 28 A (−)      
Monreal C. et al., 2021 [29] 50 A (+)      
 Reliability (Inter rater) Ullucci P.A. et al., 2019 [33] 38 D (+) No Very Low
Tousignant-Laflamme et al. 2013 [32] 28 A (−)      
 Measurement Error Monreal C. et al., 2021 [29] 50 A (?) Serious Inconsistent    Not rated
 Criterion Validity Tousignant-Laflamme et al. 2013 [32] 28 A (−) Serious Inconsistent    Not rated
 (Concurrent) Monreal C. et al., 2021 [29] 50 D (?)      
Neck Pain Clinometer App         
 Reliability (Intra-rater) Pourahmadi M.R. et al., 2018 [26] 40 A (−) No No Low
Ghorbani F. et al., 2020 [10] 20 A (−)      
Rodríguez-Sanza J. et al., 2019 [11] 10 A (+)      
 Reliability (Inter-rater) Pourahmadi M.R. et al., 2018 [26] 40 A (−) No   No Low
Ghorbani F. et al., 2020 [10] 20 A (−)      
Rodríguez-Sanza J. et al., 2019 [11] 10 A (+)      
 Measurement Error Ghorbani F. et al., 2020 [10] 20 A (?) No Inconsistent    Not rated
 Criterion Ghorbani F. et al., 2020 [10] 20 A (−) No Very Low
Rodríguez-Sanza J. et al., 2019 [11] 25 I (?) Very serious Inconsistent   No Not rated
Asymptomatic Compass App         
 Reliability (Intra rater) Guidetti. et al., 2017 [13] 23 A (+) No No Low
Satpute K. et al., 2019 [12] 32 D (+)      
Tousignant-Laflamme et al. 2013 [32] 28 A (−)      
 Reliability (Inter rater) Guidetti L. et al., 2017 [13] 23 A (+) No No Low
Satpute K. et al., 2019 [12] 32 D (+)      
Tousignant-Laflamme et al. 2013 [32] 28 A (−)      
 Measurement Error Guidetti L. et al., 2017 [13] 23 A (?) Serious Inconsistent    Not rated
Satpute K. et al., 2019 [12] 32 D (?)      
 Criterion Validity Guidetti L. et al., 2017 [13] 23 A (+) No Inconsistent    Not rated
Tousignant-Laflamme et al. 2013 [32] 28 A (−)      
 Construct Validity (convergent) Satpute K. et al., 2019 [12] 32 A (?) Serious Inconsistent    Not rated
Neck Pain Compass app         
 Reliability (Intra rater) Rodríguez-Sanza J. et al., 2019 [11] 10 A (+) No ↓↓ No Very Low
 Reliability (Inter rater) Rodríguez-Sanza J. et al., 2019 [11] 10 A (+) No ↓↓ No Very Low
 Criterion Validity Rodríguez-Sanza J. et al., 2019 [11] 25 I (?) Serious Inconsistent    Not rated
Asymptomatic Other apps (custom-made)         
 Reliability (Intra rater) Chang K. et al., 2019 [28] 41 D (+) ↓↓ No ↓↓ No Very Low
Quek J. et al., 2014 [31] 21 D (+) ↓ ↓ No ↓↓   Very Low
 Reliability (Inter rater) Chang K. et al., 2019 [28] 41 D (+) ↓ ↓ No ↓↓ No Very Low
 Measurement Error Chang K. et al., 2019 [28] 41 D (?) Very serious Inconsistent    Not rated
Quek J. et al., 2014 [31] 21 D (?) Very serious Inconsistent    Not rated
 Criterion Validity Palsson T. et al., 2019 [30] 30 A (+) No ↓↓ No Very Low
 Criterion Validity Quek J. et al., 2014 [31] 21 A (+) No ↓↓ No Very Low
 Construct Validity (convergent) Chang K. et al., 2019 [28] 41 V (+) No No ↓↓ No Low
Neck Pain Other apps (custom-made)         
 Reliability (Intra rater) Stenneberg M.S. et al., 2018 [27] 26 A (+) No ↓↓ No Very Low
 Reliability (Inter rater) Stenneberg M.S. et al., 2018 [27] 26 A (+) No ↓↓ No Very Low
 Measurement Error Stenneberg M.S. et al., 2018 [27] 26 A (?) Serious Inconsistent    Not rated
 Criterion Validity Stenneberg M.S. et al., 2018 [27] 26 A (+) No ↓↓ No Very Low
  1. PBOM Performance based outcome measure, ROB Risk of Bias, GRADE Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations, V very good, A adequate, D doubtful, I inadequate, (+) - sufficient, (−) - insufficient, (±) - inconsistent, (?) – indeterminate, ↓ – downgraded one level