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Table 3 Average thoracic kyphosis angles (TKAs) and lumbar lordosis angles (LLAs) for three postures in all participants

From: Sagittal imbalance of the spine is associated with poor sitting posture among primary and secondary school students in China: a cross-sectional study

Angle Measured Body Posture
Natural Standing Upright Sitting Seated Reading/Writing
TKA 32.873 (8.669)# 25.138 (8.729)* 33.529 (9.706)#
LLA −26.043 (10.615)# −12.661 (9.063)* 0.772 (12.676)*#
  1. Numerical values represent the mean (standard deviation)
  2. *p < 0.05 compared with natural standing position; #p < 0.05 compared with upright sitting position