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Table 2 Mean thoracic kyphosis angles (TKAs) and lumbar lordosis angles (LLAs), by sex and by age

From: Sagittal imbalance of the spine is associated with poor sitting posture among primary and secondary school students in China: a cross-sectional study

Sex Age (years) Sagittal angle of spine in natural standing position
TKA (°) LLA (°)
Male 6 26.286(7.297) −32.500(9.504)
7 34.583(9.053) − 27.167(12.350)
8 37.372(9.722) − 24.488(9.480)
9 36.797(8.944) − 23.678(9.659)
10 35.868(8.731) −24.015(9.770)
11 38.341(7.886) −27.073(12.507)
12 35.364(8.355) − 25.697(9.554)
13 31.383(5.968) −28.243(8.667)
14 32.747(5.821) −26.670(8.352)
15 34.273(5.147) −25.955(6.433)
16 33.412(6.663) −25.618(9.912)
17 31.500(6.658) −23.750(9.912)
18 43.000(5.657) −27.500(3.536)
Female 6 27.906(7.731) −24.437(17.729)
7 30.833(8.809) −23.738(12.057)
8 34.463(11.227) −24.439(10.789)
9 33.939(10.509) −23.653(8.430)
10 37.527(10.059) −24.964(10.173)
11 37.119(8.674) −25.619(10.138)
12 32.333(8.222) −26.361(19.722)
13 28.247(6.134) −26.194(13.193)
14 28.393(5.995) −28.085(9.582)
15 30.423(4.884) −26.462(7.495)
16 29.377(6.968) −26.943(9.141)
17 24.000(9.539) −34.667(7.234)
18 32.000(9.607) −36.000(4.950)
  1. Data represent mean (standard deviation)