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Table 2 Comparison between core stabilization exercise and strengthening exercise after intervention

From: Effects of core stabilization exercise and strengthening exercise on proprioception, balance, muscle thickness and pain related outcomes in patients with subacute nonspecific low back pain: a randomized controlled trial

Variables Adjusted Mean Adjusted differences between groups, (95% CI)b P-value Effect size
CSE group
(n = 18)
STE group
(n = 18)
JRE (cm) a 0.17 0.47 −0.30 (− 0.37 to − 0.2) < 0.001* 1.38
Balance
SEOS (sec) 40.85 34.44 6.41 (1.12 to 11.72) 0.019* 0.83
SECS (sec) 7.69 5.39 2.30 (0.24 to 4.36) 0.030* 0.67
SEOUS (sec) 23.92 15.62 8.30 (0.81 to 15.79) 0.031* 0.76
SECUS (sec) 2.47 1.97 0.50 (0.08 to 0.92) 0.022* 0.82
Muscle thickness (RUSI)
Left TrA - at rest (cm) 0.27 0.26 0.01 (−0.01 to 0.02) 0.571 0.15
- % change 73.24 57.57 15.66 (7.27 to 24.05) 0.001* 1.29
Right TrA - at rest (cm) 0.26 0.25 0.01 (−0.01 to 0.02) 0.401 0.39
- % change 74.49 60.62 13.86 (6.59 to 16.14) < 0.001* 1.30
Left LM - at rest (cm) 2.81 2.80 0.01 (−0.06 to 0.08) 0.771 0.11
- % change 21.50 18.10 3.41 (1.59 to 5.22) 0.001* 1.39
Right LM - at rest (cm) 2.73 2.67 0.05 (−0.01 to 0.12) 0.116 0.53
- % change 24.97 20.60 4.37 (1.81 to 6.93) 0.001* 1.21
VAS (cm) a 1.16 1.84 −0.68 (−1.49 to 0.12) 0.093 0.28
MODQ (score /100) a 13.55 20.56 −7.01 (−12.25 to − 1.77) 0.010* 0.61
TSK (score /68) a 37.93 40.96 −3.02 (−4.71 to −1.33) 0.001* 0.80
  1. aNegative score means improvement in JRE, VAS, MODQ and TSK
  2. SEOS, SECS, SEOUS, SECUS Single leg standing eyes open and eyes closed on stable and unstable surface, JRE Joint repositioning error, VAS Visual analog scale, MODQ Modified Oswestry disability questionnaire, TSK Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, RUSI Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging, CI confidence interval, TrA Transversus abdominis, LM Lumbar multifidus
  3. bMean differences between groups (95% CI) analyzed by Analysis of Co-Variance (ANCOVA)
  4. Statistically significant difference between 2 groups was set at p < 0.05*