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Table 1 Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of the participants

From: Effects of core stabilization exercise and strengthening exercise on proprioception, balance, muscle thickness and pain related outcomes in patients with subacute nonspecific low back pain: a randomized controlled trial

Characteristics CSE (n = 18) STE (n = 18) p-value
Age (years) 35.06 ± 9.55 34.50 ± 8.83 0.857
Sex    0.171
 Male 5 (27.78%) 9 (50%)  
 Female 13 (72.22%) 9 (50%)  
Weight (kg) 60.79 ± 12.78 63.24 ± 9.87 0.165
Height (cm) 158.58 ± 8.22 162.08 ± 6.49 0.525
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.02 ± 3.15 24.04 ± 3.34 0.878
Side of pain    0.360
 Left 4 (22.22%) 8 (44.44%)  
 Right 5 (27.78%) 4 (22.22%)  
 Both 9 (50%) 6 (33.33%)  
Duration of current pain (weeks) 8.33 ± 1.57 8.11 ± 1.68 0.684
Proprioception (JRE) (cm) 0.62 ± 0.22 0.69 ± 0.30 0.399
Balance
SEOS (sec) 27.05 ± 13.75 26.52 ± 12.92 0.906
SECS (sec) 3.13 ± 1.66 3.81 ± 2.92 0.397
SEOUS (sec) 9.35 ± 10.05 9.18 ± 8.11 0.956
SECUS (sec) 1.56 ± 0.55 1.34 ± 0.25 0.154
Muscle thickness (RUSI)
Left TrA - at rest (cm) 0.24 ± 0.05 0.24 ± 0.07 0.935
- % change 50.82 ± 16.81 54.29 ± 22.98 0.609
Right TrA - at rest (cm) 0.23 ± 0.06 0.23 ± 0.05 0.797
- % change 50.47 ± 21.57 56.91 ± 24.94 0.413
Left LM - at rest (cm) 2.56 ± 0.50 2.83 ± 0.61 0.146
- % change 18.44 ± 10.71 14.27 ± 6.85 0.174
Right LM - at rest (cm) 2.52 ± 0.48 2.76 ± 0.50 0.295
- % change 17.60 ± 7.99 19.73 ± 8.61 0.447
Pain (VAS) (cm) 4.28 ± 1.13 4.61 ± 1.20 0.395
Functional disability (MODQ) (score /100) 39.89 ± 10.48 42.89 ± 10.25 0.405
Fear of movement (TSK) (score /68) 42 ± 4.16 44.89 ± 3.94 0.040
  1. Values are presented as the mean ± SD and numbers (%). SEOS, SECS, SEOUS, SECUS Single leg standing eyes open and eyes closed on stable and unstable surface, JRE Joint repositioning error, VAS Visual analog scale, MODQ Modified Oswestry disability questionnaire, TSK Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, RUSI Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging, TrA Transversus abdominis, LM Lumbar multifidus