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Table 1 Participant characteristics according to the presence or absence of hallux rigidus

From: Prevalence of and risk factors for hallux rigidus: a cross-sectional study in Japan

Variable Hallux rigidus (-)
n=443
Hallux rigidus (+)
n=161
p-value
Age (mean years ± SD) 66.9± 6.7 67.6 ± 5.5 0.32
Age (≥65) 326 (73.6%) 130 (80.7%) 0.087
Sex (female) 286 (64.6%) 110 (68.3%) 0.44
BMI 23.4 ± 3.3 23.7 ± 3.1 0.49
BMI (≥25) 117 (26.4%) 56 (34.8%) 0.053
Knee osteoarthritis 93(21.6%) 68 (39.1%) *<.001
Hallux valgus 100(22.6%) 87 (54.0%) *<0.01
Heberden's node 147 (33.2%) 64 (39.8%) 0.24
Vertebral fracture 62 (14.0%) 32 (19.9%) 0.12
Osteoporosis 106 (23.9%) 45 (28.0%) 0.29
Hypertension 172 (38.8%) 71 (44.1%) 0.26
Diabetes mellitus 33 (7.4%) 21 (13.0%) *0.037
Hyperlipidemia 171 (38.6%) 57 (35.4%) 0.51
Gout attack 8 (1.8%) 8 (5.0%) *0.044
Smoking 78 (17.6%) 29 (18.0%) 0.90
Alcohol 152 (34.3%) 52 (32.3%) 0.70
  1. Abbreviations SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index
  2. *p < .05