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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the enrolled studies

From: Patients’ risk factors for periprosthetic joint infection in primary total hip arthroplasty: a meta-analysis of 40 studies

ID Authors (Year) Location Investigation years Study design Follow-up years Sample size, n Confounders adjusted NOS
1 Bozic, et al. (2014) [27] North America 1990–2011 Prospective case-control 3.7 587 Multivariate 7
2 Burn, et al. (2018) [19] Europe 1995–2014 Retrospective cohort 0.25 10,260 Multivariate 7
3 Chee, et al. (2010) [28] Europe 1998–2003 Prospective cohort 5 110 Univariate 5
4 Choong, et al. (2007) [29] Asia-Pacific 1998–2004 Retrospective cohort 3.5 819 Univariate 5
5 Cordero-Ampuero, et al. (2010) [30] Europe 1997–2007 Prospective case-control 2.3 124 Univariate 5
6 Dale, et al. (2011) [31] Europe 2005–2009 Prospective cohort 1 5540 Multivariate 7
7 Davis, et al. (2011) [32] Europe 1998–2005 Prospective cohort 5 1617 Multivariate 8
8 de Boer, et al. (2001) [33] Europe 1996–1999 Retrospective cohort 1 12,588 Univariate 6
9 Dowsey, et al. (2008) [12] Asia-Pacific 1998–2005 Retrospective cohort 1 1207 Univariate 5
10 Gittings, et al. (2017) [34] North America 2009–2014 Retrospective cohort 1 33 Univariate/ multivariate 6
11 Gonzalez, et al. (2018) [35] Europe 1996–2013 Prospective cohort 5.6 5198 Multivariate 7
12 Hartford, et al. (2020) [36] North America Retrospective cohort 1 1808 Multivariate 6
13 Huotari, et al. (2007) [37] Europe 2001–2004 Retrospective cohort 1 5614 Univariate 5
14 Jamsen, et al. (2012) [14] Europe 2002–2008 Retrospective cohort 1 3266 Multivariate 7
15 Jung, et al. (2017) [38] Asia-Pacific 2013–2015 Retrospective cohort 0.25 10,690 Multivariate 6
16 Kildow, et al. (2017) [16] North America 2005–2012 Retrospective case-control 2 61,778 Multivariate 6
17 Kurtz, et al. (2018) [39] North America 2005–2015 Retrospective case-control 4.7 1,158,742 Multivariate 7
18 Lenguerrand, et al. (2018) [40] Europe 2003–2013 Prospective cohort 4.6 623,253 Multivariate 8
19 Lubbeke, et al. (2007) [41] Europe 1996–2005 Prospective cohort 5 2495 Multivariate 7
20 Maoz, et al. (2015) [42] North America 2009–2011 Retrospective cohort 2 3672 Multivariate 6
21 Marjo, et al. (2007) [43] Europe 2000–2002 Prospective cohort 1 1922 Multivariate 7
22 Matar, et al. (2020) [44] North America 2012–2018 Retrospective cohort 1 7270 Multivariate 7
23 McIntosh, et al. (2006) [45] North America 1998–2002 Retrospective cohort 2.7 448 Multivariate 6
24 Meermans, et al. (2012) [46] Europe 1998–2006 Retrospective cohort 5.9 364 Univariate 5
25 Muilwijk, et al. (2006) [47] Europe 1996–2003 Retrospective cohort 1 26,127 Multivariate 7
26 Namba, et al. (2012) [48] North America 2001–2009 Retrospective cohort 1 30,491 Univariate/ multivariate 7
27 Ong, et al. (2009) [49] North America 1997–2006 Prospective cohort 10 39,929 Multivariate 7
28 Peel, et al. (2011) [50] Asia-Pacific 2000–2007 Prospective case-control 1 108 Univariate 5
29 Rondon, et al. (2018) [51] North America 2000–2016 Retrospective case-control 5.3 145 Univariate 6
30 Sequeira, et al. (2020) [52] North America 2005–2014 Retrospective cohort 1 741,078 Multivariate 6
31 Sequeira,S et al. (2020) [53] North America 2005–2014 Retrospective cohort 1 483,405 Multivariate 6
32 Smith, et al. (2018) [54] Asia-Pacific 2000–2014 Prospective cohort 1 91,585 Multivariate 7
33 Sodhi,N et al. (2020) [55] North America 2005–2014 Retrospective cohort 2 14,944 Univariate 6
34 Sodhi, et al. (2020) [56] North America 2005–2014 Retrospective cohort 2 162,489 Multivariate 6
35 Song, et al. (2012) [57] Asia-Pacific 2006–2009 Retrospective cohort 1 3422 Univariate/ multivariate 7
36 Surin, et al. (1983) [25] Europe 1970–1977 Retrospective cohort 3–10 803 Univariate 5
37 Tai, et al. (2014) [58] Asia-Pacific 1997–2003 Prospective cohort 10 1420 Univariate 5
38 Triantafyllopoulos, et al. (2018) [59] North America 1999–2013 Retrospective cohort 8.6 36,494 Univariate/ multivariate 7
39 Vannini, et al. (1984) [15] Europe 1969–1979 Prospective case-control 2.9 1042 Univariate 5
40 Wilson, et al. (2020) [60] North America 2009–2017 Retrospective cohort 1 8559 Multivariate 6