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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants by osteoporosis status

From: Association between lipid biomarkers and osteoporosis: a cross-sectional study

Variable No Osteoporosis (n = 411) Osteoporosis (n = 70) P
Demographics
Female (n, %)b 224 (54.5) 65 (92.9) < 0.001
 Age (years) 61.5 (8.0) 70.1 (8.4) < 0.001
Anthropometry
 Height (cm) 162.8 (8.6) 153.7 (5.8) < 0.001
 Weight (kg) 68.9 (11.4) 57.1 (9.3) < 0.001
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 26.0 (3.4) 24.2 (3.8) < 0.001
Disease diagnosis (n, %)b
 Type 2 diabetes 317 (76.39) 40 (60.61) 0.007
 Hypertension 198 (47.71) 30 (45.45) 0.733
 Ischemic heart disease 70 (16.87) 14 (21.21) 0.388
 Ischemic stroke 10 (2.41) 3 (4.55) 0.320
 Osteoarthritis 6 (1.45) 1 (1.52) 0.965
Diabetes complication (n, %)b
 Neuropathy 199 (48.42) 26 (37.14) 0.082
 Retinopathy 104 (25.30) 16 (22.86) 0.662
 Nephropathy 7 (1.69) 2 (3.03) 0.454
Diabetes medication (n, %)b
 Insulin 178 (43.3) 28 (40.0) 0.605
 Biguanide 75 (18.3) 5 (7.1) 0.027
 Sulfonylureas 27 (6.6) 6 (8.6) 0.541
 Others 22 (5.4) 5 (7.1) 0.548
Antihypertension medication (n, %)b
 Calcium channel blockers 34 (8.27) 11 (15.71) 0.048
 Angiotensin 2 receptor blockers 22 (5.35) 3 (4.29) 0.710
 Beta-blockers 9 (2.19) 2 (2.86) 0.730
 Diuretics 6 (1.46) 1 (1.43) 0.984
 Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors 2 (0.49) 2 (2.86) 0.044
Lipid biomarker
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.06 (1.26) 5.42 (1.35) 0.028
 Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.85 (0.86) 3.04 (0.99) 0.101
 High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.14 (0.31) 1.19 (0.31) 0.235
 Triglyceride (mmol/L)a 1.57 (1.12, 2.44) 1.83 (1.27, 3.05) 0.189
Liver function biomarker
 Alanine transaminase (U/L)a 21.00(15.00, 30.00) 16.50(11.00, 22.00) 0.008
 Aspartate aminotransferase (U/L)a 18.00(15.00, 23.00) 17.00(15.00, 22.00) 0.420
 Total protein (g/L) 71.35 (6.47) 70.32 (8.17) 0.242
 Albumin (g/L) 43.10 (4.21) 41.12 (5.32) < 0.001
 Total bilirubin (µmol/L) 13.10 (5.54) 11.51 (5.15) 0.027
 Direct bilirubin (µmol/L)a 3.25 (2.27, 4.49) 2.60 (1.90,3.99) 0.092
 Gamma-glutamyltransferase (U/L)a 27.00 (20.00, 43.00) 20.00 (15.00, 33.00) 0.452
Bone biochemical marker
 Alkaline phosphatase (U/L) 89.75 (28.98) 108.20 (51.70) < 0.001
 Calcium (mmol/L) 2.34 (0.13) 2.31 (0.15) 0.170
 Phosphorus (mmol/L) 1.13 (0.20) 1.12 (0.21) 0.625
Thyroid function biomarker
 Free thyroxine 4 (Ft4)(pmol/L) 15.94 (3.15) 16.36 (11.45) 0.575
 Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (mIU/L)a 2.03 (1.23, 3.11) 1.98 (0.96, 3.74) 0.881
Glucose metabolic biomarker
 Glycated hemoglobin A1c (%) 8.96 (2.10) 8.45 (2.25) 0.112
 Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 9.20 (3.76) 8.63 (5.04) 0.301
  1. Continuous variables with normal distribution are shown as means (standard deviations)
  2. acontinuous variables with skewed distribution are shown as medians (inter-quartile ranges)
  3. bcategorical variables are shown as frequencies (%)