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Table 3 Average EMG amplitude during the modified Biering Sorensen’s test, normalized to the MVC reference. All values are expressed by mean difference (%), confidence intervals and p-values (HC = healthy controls; RLBP = recurrent low back pain; ncCLBP = non-continuous chronic low back pain; cCLBP = continuous chronic low back pain; LD = latissimus dorsi muscle; GM = gluteus maximus muscle; ES = upper lumbar erector spinae muscle; MF = multifidus muscle)

From: Differences in myoelectric activity of the lumbar muscles between recurrent and chronic low back pain: a cross-sectional study

   Concentric phase Holding phase Eccentric phase
   Estimates [CI] p-value Estimates [CI] p-value Estimates [CI] p-value
LD ∆HC-RLBP -0.070 [-1.429;1.290] 1.000 -0.070 [-1.429;1.290] 1.000 -0.064 [-1.424;1.296] 1.000
∆HC-ncCLBP -1.011 [-2.565;0.544] 0.492 -0.999 [-2.553;0.556] 0.513 -0.828 [-2.383;0.726] 0.916
∆HC-cCLBP -0.785 [-2.280;0.710] 0.953 -0.832 [-2.327;0.663] 0.813 -0.928 [-2.423;0.567] 0.579
∆RLBP-ncCLBP -0.941 [-2.468;0.586] 0.594 -0.929 [-2.456;0.598] 0.619 -0.764 [-2.291;0.763] 1.000
∆RLBP-cCLBP -0.715 [-2.182;0.752] 1.000 -0.762 [-2.229;0.704] 0.977 -0.864 [-2.331;0.603] 0.687
∆NcCLBP-cCLBP 0.226 [-1.422;1.875] 1.000 0.167 [-1.482;1.816] 1.000 -0.100 [-1.748;1.549] 1.000
GM ∆HC-RLBP -0.036 [-1.779;1.706] 1.000 -0.034 [-1.777;1.708] 1.000 -0.023 [-1.766;1.719] 1.000
∆HC-ncCLBP -0.217 [-2.203;1.768] 1.000 -0.318 [-2.303;1.668] 1.000 -0.183 [-2.169;1.802] 1.000
∆HC-cCLBP -1.240 [-3.149;0.670] 0.497 -1.739 [-3.649;0.170] 0.095 -0.837 [-2.746;1.073] 1.000
∆RLBP-ncCLBP -0.181 [-2.137;1.775] 1.000 -0.283 [-2.239;1.672] 1.000 -0.160 [-2.116;1.796] 1.000
∆RLBP-cCLBP -1.203 [-3.082;0.675] 0.522 -1.705 [-3.584;0.173] 0.097 -0.814 [-2.296;1.065] 1.000
∆NcCLBP-cCLBP -1.022 [-3.128;1.084] 1.000 -1.422 [-3.528;0.684] 0.429 -0.653 [-2.760;1.453] 1.000
ES ∆HC-RLBP -0.152 [-0747;0.443] 1.000 -0.085 [-0.680;0.510] 1.000 -0.036 [-0.632;0.559] 1.000
∆HC-ncCLBP -0.291 [-0.971;0.389] 1.000 -0.325 [-1.005;0.355] 1.000 -0.133 [-0.813;0.547] 1.000
∆HC-cCLBP -0.774 [-1.425;-0.122] 0.011* -0.755 [-1.407;-0.103] 0.015* -0.366 [-1.018;0.286] 0.796
∆RLBP-ncCLBP -0.139 [-0.809;0.530] 1.000 -0.240 [-0.909;0.429] 1.000 -0.096 [-0.766;0.573] 1.000
∆RLBP-cCLBP -0.622 [-1.262;0.019] 0.062 -0.670 [-1.310;-0.030] 0.035* -0.330 [-0.970;0.311] 1.000
∆NcCLBP-cCLBP -0.482 [-1.202;0.238] 0.442 -0.430 [-1.150;0.290] 0.660 -0.23 [-0.953;0.487] 1.000
MF ∆HC-RLBP -0.300 [-1.512;0.913] 1.000 -0.203 [-1.416;1.010] 1.000 -0.116 [-1.329;1.097] 1.000
∆HC-ncCLBP -0.615 [-2.001;0.771] 1.000 -0.681 [-2.067;0.705] 1.000 -0.198 [-1.584;1.188] 1.000
∆HC-cCLBP -1.620 [-2.953;-0.287] 0.009* -1.563 [-2.896;-0.230] 0.013* -0.809 [2.142;0.525] 0.629
∆RLBP-ncCLBP -0.315 [-1.675;1.045] 1.000 -0.478 [-1.838;0.882] 1.000 -0.082 [-1.442;1.278] 1.000
∆RLBP-cCLBP -1.320 [-2.627;-0.014] 0.046* -1.360 [-2.666;-0.054] 0.037* -0.693 [-1.999;0.614] 0.932
∆NcCLBP-cCLBP -1.005 [-2.473;0.463] 0.406 -0.882 [-2.350;0.586] 0.648 -0.611 [-2.079;0.857] 1.000
  1. *statistically significant (p < 0.05)