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Table 2 Overall prevalence of WMSDs per anatomical region

From: Prevalence and incidence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in secondary industries of 21st century Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Anatomical location Mean (%) with 95% CI Median (%) Range (%) SD (%) I2 (%)
Back 60 [49;70] 66 38–72 13 83
Shoulder/Neck 54 [31;74] 51 19–83 27 96
Neck 51 [40;62] 51 32–69 15 86
Shoulder 50 [37;63] 51 23–78 18 91
Lower back 47 [33;61] 47 24–71 20 93
Wrist/Hand 42 [31;54] 44 14–64 16 90
Knee 33 [24;43] 34 21–46 11 76
Leg 29 [18;43] 23 16–56 16 89
Upper back 22 [13;37] 28 6–37 12 90
Elbow 21 [18;24] 21 15–30 4 5
Ankle/Feet 17 [12;23] 15 13–24 6 36
Hip 11 [7;18] 9 8–22 7 63