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Table 3 Meta-analysis and post-hoc sensitivity analysis of physical testing in people with cervicogenic headache and asymptomatic individuals

From: Differentiating migraine, cervicogenic headache and asymptomatic individuals based on physical examination findings: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Test Procedure or location Analysis No. of studies Patients with cervicogenic headache Asympto
matic indivi
duals
Mean difference (95% CI) Heterogeneity (I2) P for overall effect*
Cervical ROM Flexion Meta-analysis 3 86 105 −4.53 [−15.20, 6.13] 95% P = 0.40
  Sensitivity analysis (QI> 75%) 2 68 48 −7.96 [− 19.42,3.49] 94% P = 0.17
Extension Meta-analysis 3 86 105 −8.95 [−14.89, −3.01] 75% P = 0.003*
  Sensitivity analysis (QI> 75%) 2 68 48 −6.28 [−13.09,0.53] 74% P = 0.07
Rotation Meta-analysis 3 86 105 −8.73 [−17.33, −0.14] 92% P = 0.05
  Sensitivity analysis (QI> 75%) 2 68 48 −4.54 [−12.37, 3.28] 86% P = 0.26
Lateral flexion Meta-analysis 3 86 105 −4.39 [−9.48, 0.70] 83% P = 0.09
  Sensitivity analysis (QI> 75%) 2 68 48 −4.71 [−12.53, 3.11] 86% P = 0.26
Flexion + extension Meta-analysis 3 79 93 −11.87 [23.14, −0.61] 75% P = 0.04*
  Sensitivity analysis (QI> 75%) 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Rotation (sum of both sides) Meta-analysis 3 79 93 −11.46 [−24.77, 1.84] 78% P = 0.09
  Sensitivity analysis (QI> 75%) 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Lateral flexion (sum of both sides) Meta-analysis 3 79 93 −5.06 [−10.12, 0.01] 0% P = 0.05
  Sensitivity analysis (QI> 75%) 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
FRT Meta-analysis 4 124 70 −17.47 [−20.52, − 14.42] 42% P < 0.0001*
  Sensitivity analysis (QI> 75%) 4 124 70 −17.47 [−20.52,-14.42] 42% P < 0.00001*
JPE Extension Meta-analysis 2 45 82 0.41 [−0.51, 1.32] 0% P = 0.39
  Sensitivity analysis (QI> 75%) 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Rotation (both sides) Meta-analysis 2 45 82 0.13 [−1.33, 1.59] 66% P = 0.86
  Sensitivity analysis (QI> 75%) 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
PPT C2-C3 Meta-analysis 2 45 42 −0.20 [−0.58, 0.18] 0% P = 0.30
  Sensitivity analysis (QI> 75%) 1 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Strength Extensors Meta-analysis 2 42 74 −55.78 [−77.56, −34.00] 0% P < 0.00001*
  Sensitivity analysis (QI> 75%) 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Flexors Meta-analysis 2 42 74 −33.70 [−47.23, −20.16] 0% P < 0.00001*
  Sensitivity analysis (QI> 75%) 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
  1. ROM Range Of Motion, FRT Flexion-Rotation Test, JPE Joint Position Error, PPT Pressure Pain Threshold, QI Quality Index
  2. *Direction of effect found for cervicogenic headache