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Table 1 Meta-analyses and post-hoc sensitivity analysis results of physical tests in people with migraine compared to cervicogenic headache

From: Differentiating migraine, cervicogenic headache and asymptomatic individuals based on physical examination findings: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Test Procedure or location Analysis No. of studies Patients with migraine Patients with
cervicogenic headache
Mean difference (95% CI) Heterogeneity (I2) P for overall effect
Cervical ROM Flexion + extension Meta-analysis 3 69 79 13.85 [0.24, 27.45] 75% P = 0.05
  Sensitivity analysis (QI> 75%) 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Rotation (sum of both sides) Meta-analysis 3 69 79 13.88 [− 0.51, 28.27] 80% P = 0.06
  Sensitivity analysis (QI> 75%) 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Lateral flexion (sum of both sides) Meta-analysis 3 69 79 4.56 [− 0.72, 9.85] 0% P = 0.09
  Sensitivity analysis (QI> 75%) 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
FRT (both sides) Meta-analysis 2 32 43 17.67 [13.69, 21.65] 0% P < 0.00001*
  Sensitivity analysis (QI> 75%) 2 32 43 17.67 [13.69, 21.65] 0% P < 0.00001*
JPE Extension Meta-analysis 2 43 49 0.10 [−1.41, 1.60] 0% P = 0.09
  Sensitivity analysis (QI> 75%) 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Rotation Meta-analysis 2 43 49 −0.47 [−1.28, 0.34] 0% P = 0.26
  Sensitivity analysis (QI> 75%) 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Strength Extensors Meta-analysis 2 38 42 41.55 [10.56, 72.54] 48% P = 0.009*
  Sensitivity analysis (QI> 75%) 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Flexors Meta-analysis 2 38 42 23.81 [8.78, 38.85] 0% P = 0.002*
  Sensitivity analysis (QI> 75%) 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
  1. ROM Range Of Motion, JPE joint position error, QI Quality Index, FRT Flexion-Rotation Test
  2. *Direction of effect for cervicogenic headache