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Table 3 Macnab outcome evaluated at the final visit of the follow-up

From: A novel vertebral trench technique (VTT) involving transforaminal endoscopic lumbar foraminotomy (TELF) for very highly up-migrated lumbar disc herniation above L5

Total Excellent Good Fair Poor
11 10 1 0 0
  1. Excellent: free of pain and deficit, without restriction of mobility;
  2. Good: residual symptoms or deficits not impeding a normal life;
  3. Fair: some improvement in functionality but remained handicapped;
  4. Poor: no improvement at all