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Table 1 Observational and randomized studies on the association of using knee valgus brace and questionnaires (WOMAC, VAS, SF-36, KOOS). ↑ means that a positive, significant change was described in the manuscript between before and after values; – means that the outcomes improved but not significantly; ↓ means that a significant negative change was described in the publications. F: means female, M: means male

From: Effect of using knee valgus brace on pain and activity level over different time intervals among patients with medial knee OA: systematic review

First author, publication year (reference no) Study design Number of participants Intervention duration Type of the knee valgus brace Used-questionnaire The direction of effect, as indicated in the manuscript
Jones et al.,2013 [6] crossover randomized 28 (12f, 16 m) 2 weeks Donjoy-OA Adjuster, DJO, Vista, USA) WOMAC
VAS pain
Haladik et al. 2014 [1] prospective cohort 10 (1f, 9 m) 2 weeks OA Adjuster WOMAC
Fu et al., 2015 [21] non-randomized prospective cohort 10 (4f, 6 m) 4 weeks Unloader valgus knee braces (Ossurhf, Reykjavik, Iceland) WOMAC
VAS pain
Polloet al., 2002 [22] prospective cohort 11 (1f, 10 m) 2 weeks Generation II Un-loader ADJ brace, Generation II US VAS pain
Schmalz et al., 2010 [23] prospective cohort 16 (8f, 8 m) 4 weeks Genu Arthro knee brace VAS pain
Ramsey et al., 2007 [7] prospective cohort 16 (not available) 2 weeks GenerationII Unloader Select, Generation II USA, Inc., Bothell, Washington KOOS
Hsieh et al.,2020 [24] comparative study 20 (13f, 7 m) 1 month and 3 months Thruster Legacy OA brace WOMAC
VAS pain
Briggs et al. 2012 [25] prospective cohort 39 (16f,23 m) 3 week, 6 weeks, and 6 months unloader brace WOMAC
van Egmondet al., 2017 [26] randomized controlled trial 100.In Bledsoe Thrustergroup 50 (20f, 30 m).InSofTec group 50 (22f, 28 m) 2 weeks and 12 weeks the Bledsoe Thrusterbrace (B&Co Inc. N.V., Sint-Antelinks, Belgium) andtheSofTec OA Brace (Bauerfeind AG, Zeulenroda-Triebes, Germany) VAS pain
Barne et al., 2002 [27] prospective cohort 30 (12f, 18 m) 8 weeks Counterforce brace (breg, calif) SF-36
Thoumie et al., 2018 [28] randomized controlled trial 32 (24f, 8 m) 6 weeks The REBELRELIEVER unloading knee brace VAS pain (100 mm)
Gaasbeek et al.,2007 [16] prospective cohort 15 (3f, 12 m) 6 weeks The SofTec OA valgus brace WOMAC
VAS pain
Laroche et al., 2014 [29] prospective cohort 20 (16f, 5 m) 5 weeks PROTEOR (France)/ ODRA® brace WOMAC
Draganich et al.,2006 [18] Crossover 10 (not available) 5 weeks Adjustable OA Defiance; dj Orthopedics) WOMAC
Ornetti et al., 2015 [30] prospective cohort 20 (16f, 4 m) 6 weeks and 52 weeks OdrA brace KOOS
VAS pain
Arazpour et al., 2013 [31] randomized prospective cohort 12 (8f, 4 m) 6 weeks Custom-made knee valgus brace VAS pain
RobertLachaine et al., 2020 [17] randomized crossover 24 (10f, 14 m) 3 months valgus three-point bending system brace (V3Pbrace), an unloader brace with valgus and external rotation functions (VERbrace) and a stabilizing brace WOMAC
Hurley et al., 2012 [32] prospective cohort 24 (4f, 20 m) 6 months Breg Fusion valgus unloader braces (custom-made) WOMAC
Iqbal, 2014 [33] randomized controlled trial 60 (24f, 36 m) 6 months Custom-made off-loading knee braces VAS pain (mm)
VAS activity (%)
Richards et al., 2005 [34] crossover study 12 (5f, 7 m) 6 months GII Orthotics-Europe, Eindhoven, The Netherlands VAS pain
van Raaij, et al. 2010 [35] randomized controlled trial 46 (35f, 11 m) 6 months the MOS Genu1 knee brace WOMAC Function
VAS pain
Ostrander et al., 2016 [36] randomized controlled trial 16 (8f,8 m) 24 weeks a medial-unloader brace (Fusion OA; Breg, Inc) KOOS
VAS pain
Hjartarson and Toksvig-Larsen, 2018 [12] randomized controlled trial 52 out 74 finished one year study One year Unloader One® Knee Brace (Ossur,Iceland) KOOS
Sattari&Ashraf,2011 [37] randomized controlled trial 20 (63%f, 37%m) 9 months The generation II of knee orthosis VAS pain