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Table 4 Comparison of clinical and radiological data among current smokers, former smokers and non-smokers

From: The impact of smoking on outcomes following anterior cervical fusion-nonfusion hybrid surgery: a retrospective single-center cohort study

  Current smoker Former smoker Nonsmoker P value
Number of patients 40 34 79  
Sex (M:F)      < 0.001*
Male 24 16 11  
Female 16 18 68  
Age (years) 50.00 ± 6.08 51.62 ± 7.40 49.52 ± 8.13 0.393
Follow-up (months) 52.10 ± 13.95 47.71 ± 14.82 47.65 ± 16.69 0.306
T value (spine) 0.24 ± 1.01 0.26 ± 1.19 0.34 ± 0.97 0.861
Preoperative outcomes     
JOA 10.60 ± 1.03 11.12 ± 1.59 10.80 ± 1.39 0.261
NDI 30.50 ± 3.63 30.47 ± 3.86 31.37 ± 3.87 0.362
VAS-arm 5.93 ± 1.00 5.44 ± 1.37 5.68 ± 1.20 0.224
VAS-neck 5.98 ± 0.83 5.68 ± 1.12 5.90 ± 1.08 0.435
Segmental ROM 9.48 ± 5.11 11.25 ± 4.76 10.13 ± 4.51 0.273
C2-7 ROM 49.16 ± 13.81 53.44 ± 12.66 48.99 ± 12.16 0.210
Involved levels     0.116
C3/4 14 10 7  
C4/5 38 28 59  
C5/6 40 30 76  
C6/7 22 14 42  
Final outcomes     
JOA 15.55 ± 0.81 15.79 ± 1.23 15.76 ± 1.05 0.511
NDI 8.48 ± 2.61 7.85 ± 3.09 7.86 ± 2.59 0.467
VAS-arm 1.63 ± 0.67 1.44 ± 1.05 1.63 ± 0.89 0.544
VAS-neck 1.50 ± 0.51 1.59 ± 0.50 1.48 ± 0.60 0.636
Segmental ROM 7.33 ± 3.53 7.58 ± 4.09 8.17 ± 4.04 0.508
C2-7 ROM 36.26 ± 10.65 36.70 ± 11.38 37.47 ± 10.89 0.838
Heterotopic ossification 24 22 46 0.812
Bone loss 22 22 40 0.386
Early fusion effect 2.35 ± 0.73 3.20 ± 1.59 3.62 ± 1.41  < 0.001*
1-year fusion rate 33 32 76 0.035*
  1. *P < 0.05, statistically significant