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Table 4 The measured kinematics of the hips of all participants, stratified by BMI

From: Three-dimensional motion analysis of ten common Asian sitting positions in daily living and factors affect range of hip motions

Kinematic data of each
sitting position
Non-overweight
Median (range)
degrees
(n = 26)
Overweight
Median (range)
degrees
(n = 22)
P value
Flexion (+) / Extension (−)
 Kneeling plantar-flexed 67.4 (38.6 to 86.1) 67.1 (53.7 to 79.2) 0.619
 Kneeling dorsi-flexed 52.4 (29.9 to 66.7) 50.4 (38.0 to 60.3) 0.346
 Benjangkapradit prostration 99.8 (52.5 to 114.9) 91.6 (61.9 to 108.7) 0.004*
 Cross-legged 85.9 (60.2 to 105.4) 92.0 (62.8 to 105.6) 0.207
 Left monk
  Left hip 67.9 (19.0 to 79.2) 63.2 (24.3 to 80.5) 0.077
  Right hip 79.8 (55.4 to 93.0) 81.8 (66.4 to 94.5) 0.116
 Right monk
  Left hip 78.8 (60.1 to 90.5) 79.8 (67.7 to 96.6) 0.185
  Right hip 66.9 (28.1 to 79.8) 63.7 (39.1 to 79.6) 0.649
 Squatting 102.5 (47.3 to 115.4) 97.2 (48.7 to 122.0) 0.040*
 Sitting on a step stool 90.5 (55.5 to 101.6) 88.1 (44.9 to 101.9) 0.242
 Figure-four 80.3 (58.5 to 99.7) 83.9 (72.5 to 104.5) 0.166
 Standard leg-cross 78.5 (58.4 to 93.3) 83.8 (66.8 to 96.4) 0.005*
Abduction (+) / Adduction (−)
 Kneeling plantar-flexed 3.2 (−8.4 to 12.9) 6.8 (−6.0 to 18.1) 0.023*
 Kneeling dorsi-flexed 6.4 (−4.1 to 14.9) 7.8 (−1.1 to 20.4) 0.084
 Benjangkapradit prostration 2.6 (−7.8 to 13.7) 6.3 (− 10.3 to 24.9) 0.054
 Cross-legged 29.9 (10.4 to 44.3) 28.4 (9.9 to 45.7) 0.619
 Left-monk
  Left hip 15.1 (−6.4 to 44.7) 22.8 (−3.7 to 55.8) 0.043*
  Right hip 6.6 (−4.8 to 21.8) 16.1 (−5.0 to 30.7) 0.024*
 Right-monk
  Left hip 5.0 (−7.5 to 20.6) 11.2 (−8.5 to 29.4) 0.113
  Right hip 14.4 (−8.4 to 37.8) 20.2 (1.8 to 38.9) 0.034*
 Squatting 7.6 (−6.5 to 24.2) 11.8 (−5.1 to 34.3) 0.475
 Sitting on a step stool 6.4 (−6.0 to 23.1) 14.6 (−3.4 to 31.5) 0.018*
 Figure-four 15.8 (10.1 to 28.7) 17.9 (2.5 to 35.2) 0.396
 Standard leg-cross −13.7 (−21.7 to 3.9) −6.0 (−19.9 to 6.7) <  0.001*
External rotation (+) / Internal rotation (−)
 Kneeling plantar-flexed 1.19 (−6.3 to 16.63) 1.8 (−8.1 to 20.8) 0.627
 Kneeling dorsi-flexed 6.7 (−8.3 to 22.0) 9.9 (1.8 to 17.9) 0.136
 Benjangkapradit prostration 1.2 (−12.7 to 12.1) 6.7 (−18.2 to 15.5) 0.301
 Cross-legged 64.4 (37.6 to 81.7) 57.8 (40.7 to 80.5) 0.051
 Left-monk
  Left hip −36.6 (−54.5 to −15.5) − 37.5 (−53.4 to − 5.2) 0.860
  Right hip 50.4 (33.9 to 62.2) 47.2 (18.7 to 62.5) 0.166
 Right-monk
  Left hip 49.5 (37.1 to 58.9) 46.2 (27.7 to 54.1) 0.036*
  Right hip −37.0 (−52.3 to −9.9) − 36.3 (− 51.9 to −4.7) 0.852
 Squatting −3.4 (−23.7 to 7.7) −6.3 (−24.5 to 4.0) 0.128
 Sitting on a step stool −4.6 (− 15.9 to 6.8) −7.6 (− 15.7 to 9.3) 0.069
 Figure-four 59.1 (42.9 to 68.9) 51.6 (35.1 to 75.7) 0.072
 Standard leg-cross 27.4 (2.9 to 45.2) 26.7 (12.9 to 63.7) 0.555
  1. The P values were for the Mann–Whitney U test.
  2. The asterisk (*) denotes a statistically significant difference between two groups.