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Table 3 The measured kinematics of the hips of all participants, stratified by gender

From: Three-dimensional motion analysis of ten common Asian sitting positions in daily living and factors affect range of hip motions

Kinematic data of each
sitting position
Total
Median degrees
(n = 48)
Males
Median (range) degrees
(n = 24)
Females
Median (range) degrees
(n = 24)
P value
Flexion (+) / Extension (−)
 Kneeling plantar-flexed 67.4 67.1 (38.7 to 79.2) 67.4 (44.1 to 86.1) 0.695
 Kneeling dorsi-flexed 51.8 51.9 (29.9 to 60.3) 49.4 (32.4 to 66.7) 0.926
 Benjangkapradit prostration 95.3 89.3 (52.5 to 108.7) 101.6 (88.0 to 114.9) <  0.001*
 Cross-legged 87.7 87.0 (60.2 to 105.6) 89.7 (73.0 to 105.4) 0.257
 Left-monk
  Left hip 64.6 55.9 (19.0 to 80.5) 70.0 (44.4 to 79.2) <  0.001*
  Right hip 80.3 81.1 (55.4 to 94.5) 80.2 (63.6 to 93.0) 0.789
 Right-monk
  Left hip 79.1 79.4 (60.1 to 96.6) 79.1 (61.9 to 90.5) 0.433
  Right hip 65.5 58.9 (28.1 to 79.6) 69.4 (45.5 to 79.8) 0.032*
 Squatting 99.7 94.9 (47.3 to 122.0) 102.9 (87.1 to 115.4) 0.003*
 Sitting on a step stool 89.7 88.1 (44.9 to 101.9) 90.9 (74.4 to 101.6) 0.089
 Figure-four 83.3 83.1 (58.5 to 104.5) 83.6 (69.6 to 99.7) 0.984
 Standard leg-cross 80.0 80.8 (58.4 to 96.4) 80.0 (61.5 to 93.3) 0.386
Abduction (+) / Adduction (−)
 Kneeling plantar-flexed 4.3 7.4 (−6.0 to 18.1) 3.5 (−8.4 to 12.9) 0.048*
 Kneeling dorsi-flexed 7.2 7.8 (−1.1 to 20.4) 5.6 (−4.1 to 13.9) 0.070*
 Benjangkapradit prostration 4.0 4.3 (−10.3 to 23.7) 3.6 (−7.8 to 24.9) 0.248
 Cross-legged 28.9 28.9 (9.9 to 45.7) 29.0 (10.4 to 44.3) 0.773
 Left-monk
  Left hip 16.4 23.3 (−1.2 to 55.8) 11.9 (−6.4 to 21.6) <  0.001*
  Right hip 8.0 10.5 (−5.0 to 30.7) 6.7 (−4.8 to 21.8) 0.105
 Right-monk
  Left hip 7.5 11.9 (−8.5 to 29.4) 4.4 (−7.5 to 14.3) 0.009*
  Right hip 17.5 22.3 (9.2 to 38.9) 13.7 (−8.4 to 30.7) 0.001*
 Squatting 8.1 12.5 (−5.1 to 34.3) 5.2 (−6.5 to 20.6) 0.018*
 Sitting on a step stool 11.5 14.8 (−0.1 to 31.5) 4.3 (−6.0 to 17.8) <  0.001*
 Figure-four 16.5 16.9 (2.5 to 35.2) 15.8 (10.1 to 28.7) 0.757
 Standard leg-cross −10.5 −6.9 (−19.9 to 6.0) −12.5 (−21.7 to 6.7) 0.012*
External rotation (+) / Internal rotation (−)
 Kneeling plantar-flexed 1.5 1.1 (−8.1 to 20.8) 1.8 (−6.3 to 16.6) 0.734
 Kneeling dorsi-flexed 8.8 9.6 (0.4 to 15.9) 6.7 (−8.3 to 22.0) 0.359
 Benjangkapradit prostration 2.4 7.6 (−10.8 to 15.5) −2.0 (− 18.2 to 12.1) 0.001*
 Cross-legged 62.0 61.2 (37.6 to 73.5) 63.6 (40.7 to 81.7) 0.332
 Left-monk
  Left hip −37.5 −33.7 (− 51.1 to −5.2) −40.6 (−54.5 to −24.8) 0.014*
  Right hip 48.3 47.2 (18.7 to 62.5) 50.8 (33.9 to 62.2) 0.034*
 Right-monk
  Left hip 47.7 47.1 (27.7 to 58.3) 49.4 (42.5 to 58.9) 0.101
  Right hip −37.0 −35.0 (−51.9 to −4.7) − 37.9 (− 52.3 to −12.0) 0.112
 Squatting − 5.4 − 5.7 (−24.5 to 7.7) −3.4 (− 20.0 to 5.8) 0.445
 Sitting on a step stool −5.3 −6.9 (− 15.9 to 9.3) − 3.3 (− 11.0 to 6.8) 0.011*
 Figure-four 55.2 53.6 (42.9 to 68.6) 56.9 (35.1 to 75.7) 0.578
 Standard leg-cross 27.0 32.0 (14.9 to 63.7) 25.0 (2.9 to 48.4) 0.059
  1. The P values were for the Mann–Whitney U test.
  2. The asterisk (*) denotes a statistically significant difference between two groups.