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Table 3 Prevalence Ratios with 95% confidence interval considering arm pain (n = 14,327)

From: Association between working in awkward postures, in particular overhead work, and pain in the shoulder region in the context of the 2018 BIBB/BAuA Employment Survey

  Prevalence ratios for arm pain (outcome) after adjusting for gender, age, weekly working hours and working conditions (Model #5)
Age Per year 1.020 (1.016–1.023)   
Gender Women 1.454 (1.353–1.562)   
Weekly working hours Per h 0.987 (0.982–0.992)   
Psychosocial workload (score) Per unit 1.011 (1.008–1.014)   
  Never Rarely Sometimes Often
Works in awkward postures 1 (ref.) 0.907 (0.809–1.016) 1.100 (0.984–1.230) (answer split into 3 dummy variables)
1) Often performs overhead work 1 (ref.) 1.181 (1.037–1.345)
2) Often when bending 1 (ref.) 1.191 (1.050–1.351)
3) Often when kneeling 1 (ref.) 0.995 (0.874–1.132)
Manual handling of heavy loads 1 (ref.) 1.072 (0.957–1.200) 1.176 (1.033–1.339) 1.531 (1.359–1.724)
Manual handling operations 1 (ref.) 1.025 (0.879–1.195) 1.150 (1.001–1.320) 1.712 (1.534–1.911)
Climatic workload 1 (ref.) 1.063 (0.938–1.206) 1.296 (1.165–1.442) 1.646 (1.490–1.818)
  1. Legend: ref. = reference group