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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population stratified by the frequency of working in awkward body postures (n = 14,327)

From: Association between working in awkward postures, in particular overhead work, and pain in the shoulder region in the context of the 2018 BIBB/BAuA Employment Survey

  Self-reported frequency of work performed in awkward postures Work performed in specific awkward postures (percentages related to all participants)
Never Rarely Sometimes Often Total Often performs overhead work Often works in other awkward posture
Participants (n (row %) 8407 (58.7%) 2221 (15.5%) 1883 (13.1%) 1816 (12.7%) 14,327 (100%) 717 (5.0%) 1099 (7.7%)
Men (n (row %)) 4808 (54.5%) 1567 (17.7%) 1293 (14.6%) 1162 (13.2%) 8830 (100%) 554 (6.3%) 608 (6.9%)
Women (n (row %)) 3599 (65.5%) 654 (11.9%) 590 (10.7%) 654 (11.9%) 5497 (100%) 163 (3.0%) 491 (8.9%)
Women to men ratio (%) 42.8% 29.4% 31.3% 36.0% 38.4% 22.7% 44.7%
Age (mean (SD)) 47.3 (10.9) 46.7 (11.0) 45.4 (11.5) 45.0 (11.7) 46.7 (11.1) 45.6 (11.6) 46.7 (11.2)
Weekly working hours (Mean (SD)) 43.6 (7.0) 43.8 (7.5) 44.6 (9.2) 43.8 (8.2) 43.8 (7.6) 44.1 (8.3) 43.6 (8.3)
Psychosocial workload index by Kroll (mean (SD)) 37.1 (10.9) 40.3 (12.0) 42.1 (12.4) 42.2 (13.4) 38.9 (11.8) 41.6 (13.1) 42.6 (13.5)
Arm pain (col %) Yes 12.3% 16.4% 23.5% 36.0% 17.4% 39.6% 33.7%
Neck and shoulder pain (col %) Yes 45.9% 45.9% 50.3% 60.6% 48.4% 58.7% 61.8%
Gender (col %) Women 42.8% 29.4% 31.3% 36.0% 38.4% 22.7% 44.7%
Men 57.2% 70.6% 68.7% 64.0% 61.6% 77.3% 55.3%
Manual handling operations (col %) Never 66.5% 12.1% 9.0% 5.8% 42.8% 2.1% 8.2%
Rarely 9.7% 28.9% 7.0% 5.1% 11.7% 3.8% 6.0%
Sometimes 7.1% 20.6% 34.7% 11.6% 13.4% 11.0% 12.0%
Often 16.7% 38.5% 49.3% 77.5% 32.1% 83.1% 73.8%
Manual handling of heavy loads (col %) Never 70.2% 19.2% 14.9% 8.2% 47.2% 5.0% 10.3%
Rarely 19.4% 44.7% 20.7% 13.8% 22.7% 13.1% 14.3%
Sometimes 6.1% 17.0% 32.7% 16.5% 12.6% 16.3% 16.6%
Often 4.3% 19.1% 31.7% 61.5% 17.5% 65.6% 58.9%
Climatic workload (col %) Never 75.4% 31.1% 25.6% 21.3% 55.1% 11.9% 27.4%
Rarely 9.9% 27.9% 12.3% 11.7% 13.2% 12.3% 11.4%
Sometimes 8.7% 19.6% 34.5% 20.3% 15.3% 22.0% 19.2%
Often 6.0% 21.4% 27.6% 46.7% 16.4% 53.8% 42.0%
  1. Legend: row %: row percentage, n: absolute number, col. %: column percentage, SD: standard deviation