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Table 1 Characteristics of the study participants

From: Effect of electromyostimulation on intramyocellular lipids of the vastus lateralis in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

  EMS Control Effect size (r)
No. of subjects (men/women) 12 (5/7) 10 (4/6)  
Physical characteristics
 Age (years) 69.0 ± 5.2 68.4 ± 3.5 −0.01
 Height (cm) 159.0 ± 11.9 157.1 ± 6.9 −0.01
 Weight (kg) 55.7 ± 10.6 56.0 ± 7.7 −0.06
 BMI (kg/m2) 21.9 ± 2.3 22.7 ± 2.3 −0.11
Blood biochemistry
 Glucose (mg/dL) 94.1 ± 9.8 97.7 ± 25.4 −0.04
 Insulin (μIU/mL) 5.5 ± 2.4 7.8 ± 7.3 −0.11
 FFA (μEq/L) 714.0 ± 161.9 749.9 ± 265.3 −0.15
 TG (mg/dL) 105.2 ± 77.4 87.2 ± 43.6 −0.08
 HbA1c (%) 5.9 ± 0.4 6.0 ± 0.5 −0.13
Skeletal muscle profiles
 IMCL (mmol/kg wet weight) 15.7 ± 15.7 13.6 ± 15.8 −0.02
 EMCL (mmol/kg wet weight) 28.5 ± 15.6 27.5 ± 14.2 −0.02
 MVC during isometric knee extension (Nm) 71.6 ± 35.7 65.5 ± 25.0 −0.01
Physical activity
 Physical activity level (min) 93.8 ± 17.0 113.6 ± 27.2 −0.39
 Physical activity level (MET h) 4.5 ± 1.0* 5.7 ± 1.7 −0.42
 Number of steps 8991.8 ± 1722.7 11,123.2 ± 2990.0 −0.35
Dietary intake during the 3 days before 1H-MRS
 Energy (kcal/body weight) 35.8 ± 9.2 36.6 ± 7.3 −0.14
 Carbohydrates (g/body weight) 4.9 ± 1.0 4.8 ± 0.9 −0.01
 Protein (g/body weight) 1.4 ± 0.4 1.5 ± 0.4 −0.08
 Fat (g/body weight) 1.1 ± 0.5 1.2 ± 0.3 −0.28
Dietary habits
 Energy (kcal/body weight) 36.8 ± 7.5 33.5 ± 7.6 −0.15
 Carbohydrates (g/body weight) 5.0 ± 1.0 4.5 ± 0.9 −0.17
 Protein (g/body weight) 1.4 ± 0.4 1.2 ± 0.3 −0.30
 Fat (g/body weight) 1.2 ± 0.3 1.0 ± 0.3 −0.22
  1. Values are means ± SD. *p < 0.05 versus control group. BMI body mass index, EMCL extramyocellular lipid, ES effect size, FFA free fatty acid, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, 1H-MRS magnetic resonance spectroscopy, IMCL intramyocellular lipid, MET h metabolic equivalent × hours, MVC maximal voluntary contraction, TG triglyceride. Data for IMCL and EMCL: EMS group, men n = 5, women n = 2; control group, men, n = 4, women n = 3