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Table 3 Demographics, and clinical presentation according to triradiate cartilage fractures (n = 109)

From: Clinical characteristics, injury pattern and management of pediatric pelvic fracture: An observational retrospective study from a level I trauma center

  Open triradiate cartilage (n = 56) Closed triradiate cartilage (n = 53) P value
Age (mean ± SD) 6.9 ± 4.2 16.4 ± 1.6 0.001
Males % 40 (71.4%) 46 (86.8%) 0.04
Mechanism of injury %    
Motor vehicle crashes 16 (28.6%) 41 (77.4%) 0.001 for all
Fall 9 (16.1%) 5 (9.4%)
Pedestrian 25 (44.6%) 1 (1.9%)
Others 6 (10.7%) 6 (11.3%)
Associated injuries %   
Chest 22 (39.3%) 26 (49.1%) 0.30
Spine 4 (7.1%) 22 (41.5%) 0.001
Abdomen 16 (28.6%) 24 (45.3%) 0.07
Head 8 (14.3%) 18 (34.0%) 0.01
Lower extremity 7 (12.5%) 13 (24.5%) 0.10
Injury Severity Score (mean ± SD) 12.8 ± 9.9 19.3 ± 11.6 0.002
Revised Trauma Score (mean ± SD) 7.6 ± 0.9 7.2 ± 1.3 0.06
Pelvis abbreviated injury score (mean ± SD) 2.1 ± 0.4 2.4 ± 0.7 0.03
Torode fracture classification %    
Type I 1 (1.8%) 2 (4.8%) 0.27 for all
Type II 10 (17.9%) 4 (9.5%)
Type III 41 (73.2%) 29 (69.0%)
Type IV 4 (7.1%) 7 (16.7%)
Acetabular fracture % 0 (0.0%) 9 (17.0%) 0.001
Management %    
Conservative management 49 (87.5%) 38 (71.7%) 0.04
Surgical intervention 7 (12.5%) 15 (28.3%)
Intubation % 8 (14.3%) 14 (26.4%) 0.11
Positive FAST scan % 4 (7.5%) 8 (17.0%) 0.14
Number of blood units (median and range) 2 (1–12) 4 (1–51) 0.06
Blood transfusion % 15 (26.8%) 28 (52.8%) 0.005
Massive blood transfusion % 2 (3.6%) 5 (9.4%) 0.21
In-hospital complications %    
Pneumonia 0 (0.0%) 6 (11.3%) 0.10
Sepsis 0 (0.0%) 2 (3.8%) 0.14
ARDS 0 (0.0%) 1 (1.9%) 0.30
Acute Kidney Injury 1 (1.8%) 3 (5.7%) 0.28
Ventilatory days (median and range) 2 (1–10) 9 (1–31) 0.03
ICU length of stay (median and range) 2.5 (1–15) 7 (2–35) 0.005
Hospital length of stay (median and range) 6 (1–76) 14 (1–85) 0.001
Mortality % 1 (1.8%) 2 (3.8%) 0.52