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Table 2 Comparison of clinical presentation and outcome of paediatric pelvic fracture based on Torode fracture classification

From: Clinical characteristics, injury pattern and management of pediatric pelvic fracture: An observational retrospective study from a level I trauma center

  Type I (n = 6) Type II (n = 14) Type III (n = 71) Type IV (n = 13) P value
Age (mean ± SD) 10.4 ± 6.4 9.0 ± 6.7 11.1 ± 5.7 13.3 ± 5.3 0.30
Males % 4 (66.7%) 10 (71.4%) 55 (77.5%) 10 (76.9%) 0.91
Associated injuries %      
Chest 4 (66.7%) 7 (50.0%) 35 (49.3%) 5 (38.5%) 0.72
Spine 1 (16.7%) 1 (7.1%) 18 (25.4%) 4 (30.8%) 0.42
Abdomen 3 (50.0%) 4 (28.6%) 27 (38.0%) 6 (46.2%) 0.74
Head 2 (33.3%) 3 (21.4%) 20 (28.2%) 1 (7.7%) 0.42
Lower extremity 2 (33.3%) 2 (14.3%) 11 (15.5%) 2 (15.4%) 0.71
Injury Severity Score (mean ± SD) 21.0 ± 9.5 14.1 ± 8.7 15.7 ± 11.0 21.9 ± 15.8 0.19
Revised Trauma Score 7.8 ± 0.1 7.0 ± 1.3 7.2 ± 1.3 7.7 ± 0.4 0.30
Pelvis AIS 2.2 ± 0.4 2.1 ± 0.3 2.2 ± 0.4 2.9 ± 1.1 0.001
Open triradiate cartilage % 1 (33.3%) 10 (71.4%) 41 (58.6%) 4 (36.4%) 0.27
Closed triradiate cartilage % 2 (66.7%) 4 (28.6%) 29 (41.4%) 7 (63.6%)
Management %      
Conservative management 6 (100%) 13 (92.9%) 67 (94.4%) 1 (7.7%) 0.001 for all
Surgical intervention 0 (0.0%) 1 (7.1%) 4 (5.6%) 12 (92.3%)
Blood transfusion 3 (50.0%) 6 (42.9%) 26 (36.6%) 7 (53.8%) 0.64
Massive blood transfusion 0 (0.0%) 1 (7.1%) 4 (5.6%) 2 (15.4%) 0.54
In-hospital complications %      
Pneumonia 0 (0.0%) 1 (7.1%) 6 (8.5%) 0 (0.0%) 0.63
Sepsis 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (2.8%) 0 (0.0%) 0.81
ARDS 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (7.7%) 0.07
Acute Kidney Injury 0 (0.0%) 1 (7.1%) 2 (2.8%) 1 (7.7%) 0.71
Deep vein thrombosis 0 0 1 (1.4%) 0
ICU length of stay (median and range) 2.5 (2–3) 5 (2–12) 5 (1–35) 4 (1–7) 0.44
Hospital length of stay (median and range) 13.5 (1–40) 5 (1–36) 9 (1–85) 13 (1–44) 0.15
Mortality % 0 (0.0%) 1 (7.1%) 1 (1.4%) 1 (7.7%) 0.43