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Table 1 Validity of the questionnaire and indices of measuring model for sitting behaviors

From: Identification of factors related to behaviors associated with musculoskeletal pain among elementary students

Constructs and questions Scoring Mean ± SD CVR S-CVI Factor loading Cronbach’s alpha Composite reliability AVE T-value
Predisposing factors (Perceived susceptibility) 4 to 12 7.28 ± 2.13 0.92 ≥0.70   0.52 0.76 0.51  
 If the sitting posture is not good I’ll have pain in my back, neck and shoulders      0.75     10.57
 Long-time sitting (more than 20 min) may cause pain in my back, neck and shoulders      0.78     12.76
 I won’t get pain in my back, neck and shoulders because I’m too young.      0.60     7.16
Predisposing factors (Perceived severity) 4 to 12 8.97 ± 2.43 0.95 ≥0.70   0.72 0.82 0.55  
 Pain in my back, neck and shoulders makes me not attend school.      0.81     13.25
 I am not being able to focus in class because of pain in back, neck and shoulders      0.74     13.38
 Pain in my back, neck and shoulders is a serious disease.      0.76     11.47
 Pain in my back, neck and shoulders makes me take drugs.      0.62     7.61
Predisposing factors (Perceived benefits) 4 to 12 9.55 ± 2.05 0.85 ≥0.70   0.60 0. 77 0.54  
 If my sitting posture is accurate, I’ll get much less pain in my neck, shoulder and back.      0.83     2.90
 If I sit in a proper posture, I’ll have much more concentration while learning something      0.67     2.73
 If I sit in a proper posture my family won’t have to pay costs of back, shoulder and neck treatments      0.68     2.15
Predisposing factors (Perceived barriers) 9 to 27 19.18 ± 5.58 0.81 ≥0.70   0.90 0.91 0.56  
 If I sit well in class, my classmates would make fun of me.      0.73     11.73
 If I sit in a proper posture,, I will get tired soon      0.71     9.69
 If I sit in a proper posture,, I will get distracted      0.80     16.64
 If I sit well in class, I can’t catch up with my friends in doing assignments.      0.82     20.36
 Improper furniture wouldn’t let me sit properly.      0.73     14.42
 The school has stairs so I can’t use a wheeled backpack.      0.76     16.76
 Stretching exercises make mess out of the class.      0.76     17.68
 The teacher doesn’t let us doing stretching.      0.74     15.63
 I will not get bored at home while doing stretching      0.62     8.23
Predisposing factors (Perceived Self-efficacy) 3 to 9 5.88 ± 2.09 0.86 ≥0.70   0.87 0.92 0.79  
 I always sit on chairs (furniture) in a good posture.      0.86     26.88
 I sit well even if I’m tired.      0.90     37.8
 I can sit well for a long time (more than 20 min).      0.90     37.90
Reinforcing factors 6 to 18 10.61 ± 2.73 0.93 ≥0.70   0.66 0.81 0.60  
 My teachers or school nurses encourage me to sit properly in the class      0.88     16.22
 My friends encourage me to sit properly in the class      0.53     2.69
 My parents and siblings encourage me to sit properly.      0.87     11.29
Enabling factors 5 to 15 9.21 ± 2.75 0.92 ≥0.70   0.68 0.80 0.51  
 School furniture is good for proper sitting      0.73     13.97
 My teachers and school nurses taught me how to sit well.      0.70     8.87
 My friends taught me how to sit well.      0.81     27.78
 My parents and siblings taught me how to sit well.      0.58     6.02
Behaviors 4 to 12 7.38 ± 2.07     0.69 0.81 0.51  
 I put my forearms on the chair, when I’m sitting.      0.71     9.62
 When I’m sitting on the chair, I put my legs on the floor.      0.69     10.89
 While sitting, I lean my backrest on the chair and never bend over my book or notebook      0.76     16.26
 I do stretching when I get tired of sitting for a long time (after 20 min).      0.70     11.39