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Table 2 Characteristics of the participants

From: Prevalence and risk factors for bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis patients from South China: modeled by three methods

Characteristics HC, n==198 RA, n = 405 p
Demographic
 Age, years, mean (SD) 60.4 (10c.4) 59.4 (10.3) 0.275
 Disease duration, years, median [IQR] NA 5.5[1.5;13.0] NA
 BMI, Kg/m2, mean (SD) 22.8 (3.6) 22.1 (3.4) 0.031
 Female, n (%) 146 (73.7) 317 (78.3) 0.256
Menopause status of female, n (%)    < 0.001*
 Post-menopause, age > 45 104 (71.2) 186 (58.7)  
 Early menopause, age ≤ 45 25 (17.1) 38 (12.0)  
Lifestyle
 Smoking, ever or current, yes, n (%) 17 (8.6) 36 (8.9) 0.937
 Drinking, ever or current, yes, n (%) 18 (9.1) 18 (4.4) 0.035
Medical history
 Diabetes mellitus 35 (17.7) 47 (11.6) 0.055
 Hypertension 75 (37.9) 77 (19.0) < 0.001
 Coronary heart disease 20 (10.1) 20 (4.9) 0.027
 Hyperuricemia 15 (7.6) 43 (10.6) 0.297
 Dyslipidemia 58 (29.3) 56 (13.8) < 0.001
 Femoral neck necrosis 1 (0.5) 8 (2.0) 0.268
 Osteoporotic fracture 0 20 (4.9) NA
 Anti-osteoporotic medication 6 (3.0) 29 (7.2) 0.641
Laboratory
 Serum calcium level, mmol /L, mean (SD) 2.4 (0.2) 2.3 (0.1) < 0.001
 Serum phosphate level, mmol /L, mean (SD) 1.9 (8.1) 1.2 (0.4) 0.272
 Serum creatinine level, μmol /L, mean (SD) 67.2 (32.9) 62.6 (20.5) 0.086
 Serum Uric acid level, μmol /L, mean (SD) 327.9 (101.2) 314.1 (103.9) 0.146
 Serum 25(OH)D3 level, nmol /L, mean (SD) 65.6 (22.1) 76.7 (32.9) 0.006
 Vitamin D insufficiency, yes, n (%) 65 (32.8) 145 (35.8) 0.046*
 Hypovitaminosis D, yes, n (%) 43 (21.7) 118 (29.1) 0.046*
  1. *: p for trend with Cochran-Armitage test; HC Healthy controls, RA Rheumatoid arthritis, hypovitaminosis D Serum 25(OH)D3 < 50 nmol/L, VitD3 deficiency Serum 25(OH)D3 < 75 nmol/L