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Table 1 The demographics and preoperative characteristics according to final knee flexion after TKA

From: A high degree of knee flexion after TKA promotes the ability to perform high-flexion activities and patient satisfaction in Asian population

Variable Final knee flexion p-value
≥ 130° (N = 619) <  130° (N = 291)
Age (years) 69.1 ± 6.6 68.4 ± 8.4 n.s.
Sex (female) 575 (92.9%) 274 (94.2%) n.s.
Height (cm) 152.9 ± 6.3 152.3 ± 6.7 n.s.
Weight (kg) 62.5 ± 8.6 62.9 ± 8.9 n.s.
Body mass index (kg/m2) 26.7 ± 3.1 27.1 ± 3.4 n.s.
Diagnosis    n.s.
 Osteoarthritis 613 (99.0%) 288 (99.0%)  
 Rheumatoid arthritis 2 (0.3%) 2 (0.7%)  
 Others 4 (0.6%) 1 (0.3%)  
Side (right) 306 (49.4%) 154 (52.9%) n.s.
Bilateral TKA 426 (68.8%) 183 (62.9%) n.s.
Patellar resurfacing 516 (83.4%) 251 (86.3%) n.s.
Additional lateral release 4 (0.7%) 3 (1.0%) n.s.
History of operation on the knee 11 (1.8%) 10 (3.4%) n.s.
Follow-up time (years) 5.1 [2.9, 7.8] 4.6 [2.0, 7.0] 0.010
Preoperative functional evaluation
 Knee flexion (°) 129.2 ± 11.4 113.9 ± 19.8 < 0.001
 Flexion contracture (°) 12.3 ± 8.2 13.8 ± 8.6 0.012
 Range of motion (°) 116.8 ± 15.4 100.1 ± 23.3 < 0.001
 Knee Society knee score 47.4 ± 16.8 46.1 ± 18.2 n.s.
 Knee Society function score 41.3 ± 18.9 42.0 ± 19.3 n.s.
 Hospital for Special Surgery score 56.6 ± 15.2 55.0 ± 15.6 n.s.
 WOMAC - pain 9.1 ± 3.5 8.9 ± 3.4 n.s.
 WOMAC - stiffness 4.2 ± 1.9 4.1 ± 1.9 n.s.
 WOMAC - physical function 38.2 ± 14.6 37.9 ± 14.0 n.s.
 WOMAC total 50.4 ± 18.8 49.7 ± 18.3 n.s.
  1. WOMAC Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, n.s. not significant
  2. Data was reported as mean ± standard deviation or median [interquartile range (IQR)] for continuous variable and frequency (percentage) for categorical variables
  3. P-values were calculated by Student’s t-test or Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables and chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables as appropriate