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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the participants (n = 200)

From: Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric validation of the Thai version of the STarT Back Screening Tool in patients with non-specific low back pain

Variables % (n) Mean ± SD Minimum Maximum
Age (year)   24.95 ± 8.75 20.00 62.00
Genders     
 Female 79.00 (158)
 Male 21.00 (42)
Education     
 No primary school
 Primary school 1.50 (3)
 High school 91.00 (182)
 Bachelor’s degree 6.00 (12)
 Master’s degree 1.50 (3)
 Doctoral degree
Types of low back pain     
 Acute 52.00 (104)
 Sub-acute 16.00 (32)
 Chronic 32.00 (64)
STarT risk group     
 Low risk 80.00 (160)
 Medium risk 16.00 (32)
 High risk 4 .00 (8)
VAS (0–100)   3.11 ± 1.57 0.40 7.40
 SBST-TH total score (0–9)   2.42 ± 1.61 0 9.00
 Physical subscore (0–4)   1.17 ± 1.68 0 4.00
 Psychological subscore   1.24 ± 1.11 0 5.00
 RMDQ (0–24)   2.44 ± 2.95 0 21.00
 FABQ total score (0–66)   32.66 ± 11.85 1.00 57.00
 FABQ-PA (0–24)   13.31 ± 4.69 0 24.00
 FABQ-W (0–42)   19.35 ± 8.48 0 34.00
 PCS total score (0–52)   11.21 ± 8.74 0 40.00
 Rumination   4.63 ± 3.69 0 15.00
 Magnification   2.90 ± 2.54 0 12.00
 Helplessness   3.69 ± 3.59 0 18.00
 HADS total score (0–42)   12.65 ± 4.95 4.00 35.00
 Anxiety (0–21)   8.29 ± 2.73 1.00 19.00
 Depression (0–21)   4.36 ± 2.97 0 16.00
 EQ-5D-5L index (0–1)   0.91 ± 0.10 0.18 1.00
 EQ-VAS (0–100)   76.81 ± 14.79 25.00 100.00
  1. SD Standard deviation, VAS Visual analogue scale, SBST-TH STarT back screening tool-Thai version, RMDQ Roland-Morris disability questionnaire, FABQ Fear-avoidance beliefs questionnaire, FABQ-PA Fear-avoidance beliefs questionnaire about physical activity, FABQ-W Fear-avoidance beliefs questionnaire about work, PCS Pain catastrophising scale, HADS Hospital anxiety and depression scale, EQ-5D-5L EuroQol five-dimensional five-level questionnaire, EQ-VAS EuroQol-visual analogue scale