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Table 1 Foot length (mm) in reference feet* and in clubfeet** at different ages

From: Development of foot length in children with congenital clubfoot up to 7 years of age: a prospective follow-up study

Age (years) Reference Clubfeet P value
n mean (SD) n mean (SD)
2 36 140 (8) 61 134 (7) 0.001
2.5 38 148 (8) 67 141 (8) 0.000
3 41 155 (9) 70 147 (9) 0.000
3.5 37 160 (9) 62 152 (10) 0.000
4 43 165 (9) 71 157 (9) 0.000
4.5 42 171 (9) 70 161 (10) 0.000
5 40 176 (10) 69 165 (10) 0.000
5.5 33 179 (10) 57 169 (10) 0.000
6 37 185 (9) 64 174 (10) 0.000
6.5 37 189 (9) 59 179 (9) 0.000
7 35 193 (11) 60 183 (12) 0.000
n, number of measurements; SD, standard deviation. P values after Student’s t test. Significance set up to P < 0.005 after Bonferroni correction. *Contralateral feet in children with unilateral clubfoot. ** unilateral and bilateral (one randomly selected foot from each child was included)