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Table 1 Comparison of baseline characteristics of study participants

From: Effectiveness of local exercise therapy versus spinal manual therapy in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome: medium term follow-up results of a randomized controlled trial

Variable Local exercise group (n = 18) Spinal manual therapy group (n = 25) P value
Gender (% female) 15 (83%) 21 (84%) 0.95a
Age (years) 21 (17–34) 28 (21.5–31.5) 0.16b
Weight (kg) 71.8 ± 13.4 66.9 ± 8.6 0.15c
Height (cm) 172.8 ± 7.7 171.0 ± 7.7 0.57c
Duration of symptoms (months) 27 (19.5–80.3) 36 (24–90) 0.37b
Weekly participation in sport (% yes) 12 (67%) 17 (68%) 0.93a
Number of patients receiving physical therapy in the past (% yes) 14 (78%) 24 (96%) 0.07a
Number of patients with chondral lesions ≤ grade 2 (% yes) 8 (44%) 4 (16%) 0.04a
Number of patients with bilateral knee pain (% yes) 7 (39%) 8 (32%) 0.39a
Maximum pain* (mm) 73.6 ± 13.6 74.4 ± 14.3 0.85c
Minimum pain* (mm) 10.0 (4.3–22.5) 7.0 (0.0–17.0) 0.24b
Current pain* (mm) 27.0 (9.5–48.0) 33.0 (18.0–53.0) 0.68
AKPS 60.4 ± 10.6 66.9 ± 11.6 0.07
MVPF (N·m) 121.5 (105.0–154.5) 125.0 (103.3–137.8) 0.78
  1. n number of patients, % percentage, mean ± standard deviation for normal distributed data, median (IQR) for non-normal distributed data, * pain measured using the visual analogue scale, AKPS anterior knee pain scale, MVPF maximum voluntary peak force, N·m Newton metre (torque), a chi-squared test, b Mann-Whitney U test, c independent t-test