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Table 1 Antibiotic prophylaxis

From: Prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis use in elective orthopaedic surgery – a cross-sectional analysis

Characteristics SAP (N = 1137) PSAP (N = 155) P-Value
Antibiotic agent    0.003
 Cefuroxime 1000 (88%) 147 (95%)  
 Vancomycin 4 (0.35%) 3 (1.9%)  
 Clavulanic acid/ amoxicillin 0 (0.00%) 1 (0.65%)  
 Clindamycin 8 (0.70%) 4 (2.6%)  
Number of consecutive post-operative intake doses < 24 h (number of patients)
 0 125 (11%) 0  
 1 12 (1.1%) 0  
 2 999 (87.8%) 155 (100%)a  
 3 1 (0.1%) 0  
Route of administration < 24 h    1.00
 IV (intravenous) 1006 (88%) 154 (99%)  
 p.o. (peroral) 6 (0.53%) 1 (0.65%)  
Number of consecutive intake doses ≥24 h (number of doses) n/a 3.3 (1.5)  
Route of administration ≥24 h
 IV (intravenous) n/a 152 (98%)  
 p.o. (peroral) n/a 3 (1.9%)  
Antibiotic prophylaxis duration ≥24 h after surgery (in hours)b n/a 27 (15)  
Presence of wound drain installed during operation 740 (65%) 139 (90%) < 0.001
 Number of drains in surgical site 1.1 (0.27) 1.5 (0.53) < 0.001
 Number of drains in surgical site    < 0.001
  1 686 (60%) 74 (48%)  
  2 53 (4.7%) 63 (41%)  
  3 1 (0.09%) 2 (1.3%)  
 Drain 1 - Duration of drain (in hours) 26 (11) 43 (14) < 0.001
 Drain 2 - Duration of drain (in hours) 32 (16) 44 (10) < 0.001
 Cumulative drain output (of all drains) (in ml) 131 (147) 224 (223) < 0.001
Post-operative transfusion of concentrated red blood cells 11 (0.97%) 2 (1.3%) 0.66
Other transfusion (platelet concentrate, fresh frozen plasma, albumin) 3 (0.26%) 0 (0.00%) 1.00
Record of NRS (Nutritional-Risk-score)c 247 (22%) 50 (32%) 0.004
Absolute NRS score 1.9 (0.85) 2.1 (1.0) 0.13
Surgical site infection 4 (0.35%) 0 (0.00%) 1.00
  1. Footnote: Numbers are shown as mean (sd) or n (%)
  2. aAll patients receiving PSAP, i. e. surgical antibiotic prophylaxis for more than 24 h, also received 2 doses of SAP in the first 24 h post-operative
  3. bAntibiotic prophylaxis duration ≥24 h after surgery (in hours) = number of consecutive intake doses multiplied with time interval between doses in hours
  4. cNRS score: screening tool for malnutrition. Internal nursing guidelines recommend collection of NRS score: if a stay ≥72 h is expected or one of the following criteria is met: Patient ≥70 years old (NRS score at third day of hospitalization), BMI < 20 kg/m2 (NRS score at admission), patients with loss of appetite or apparent malnutrition (NRS score at admission), patients undergoing major visceral operation (NRS score at third day of hospitalization), patients with known tumor disease (NRS score at third day of hospitalization), patients undergoing chemotherapy (NRS score at admission), all patients at eighth day of hospitalization. If NRS score is < 3 points weekly reevaluation is proceeded. NRS score ≥ 3 points needs intervention. NRS score ≥ 3 points is considered as light, = 4 points moderate and ≥ 5 points substantial energy and protein malnutrition