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Table 1 Section 1: Statements and synoptic review of Clinical Practice Guidelines

From: Italian physiotherapists’ knowledge of and adherence to osteoarthritis clinical practice guidelines: a cross-sectional study

Statements Clinical Practice Guidelines
1) Exercise can be effective on all patients, regardless of the pain severity. NICE (1.2.5–1.4.1) [4]; EULAR (3–6-7) [2];
OARSI (Tables 2-3) [3]
2) In an advanced stage of the disease, exercise can damage the joint (reversed statement). NICE (1.2.5–1.4.1) [4]; EULAR (2–3–6-7) [2];
OARSI (Tables 2-3) [3]
3) The rehabilitation programme must always include a part of education on the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis and self-management strategies. NICE (1.3.1–1.3.2–1.3.3) [4]; EULAR (3–5) [2]; OARSI (Tables 2-3) [3]
4) The rehabilitation programme should always include a part of manual treatment (reversed statement) NICE (1.4.2) [4]; EULAR (−); OARSI (−)
5) Exercise should only be undertaken after prescribing drug treatment to control pain (reversed statement). NICE (1.2.5–1.4.1) [4]; EULAR (3–6-7) [2];
OARSI (Tables 2-3) [3]
6) The use of topical anti-inflammatory drugs is effective for pain relief for knee osteoarthritis. NICE (1.5.3) [4]; EULAR (−); OARSI (Table 2) [3]
7) Radiographic findings are needed to express a functional diagnosis of osteoarthritis (reversed statement). NICE (1.1.1) [4]; EULAR (1) [2]; OARSI (−)
8) Radiographic findings are needed to plan the physiotherapy treatment (reversed statement). NICE (1.1.1) [4]; EULAR (1) [2]; OARSI (−)
9) Physical activity should be avoided because it can damage the joint (reversed statement). NICE (1.2.5–1.4.1) [4]; EULAR (3–6-7) [2];
OARSI (Tables 2-3) [3]
10) The use of topical anti-inflammatory drugs is effective for pain relief for hip osteoarthritis. NICE (−); EULAR (−); OARSI (−)
11) In case of severe joint degeneration, it is necessary to recommend rest from physical activity (reversed statement). NICE (1.2.5–1.4.1) [4]; EULAR (2–3–6-7) [2];
OARSI (Tables 2-3) [3]
12) In cases of severe pain (VAS ≥ 6/10), arthroplasty surgery should be preferred to rehabilitation (reversed statement). NICE (1.6) [4]; EULAR (−); OARSI (−)
13) The use of TENS should be considered. NICE (1.4.4) [4]; EULAR (−); OARSI (−)
14) The use of physical therapies such as lasers, TECAR and ultrasound therapy should be considered (reversed statement). NICE (1.4.4) [4]; EULAR (−); OARSI (−)
15) In addition to the rehabilitation treatment, it is useful to recommend physical activity (for example, yoga, swimming, Nordic walking). NICE (1.2.5–1.3.2–1.4.1) [4]; EULAR (−); OARSI (Tables 2-3) [3]
16) It is important to recommend weight loss to overweight or obese patients. NICE (1.2.5–1.4.3) [4]; EULAR (3–8) [2]; OARSI (Tables 2-3) [3]
17) Age > 45, pain and absence of joint stiffness (or < 30 min) in the morning are sufficient to diagnose osteoarthritis. NICE (1.1.1) [4]; EULAR (−); OARSI (−)
18) The use of comfortable footwear, braces or aids should be considered. NICE (1.3.2–1.4.7–1.4.8–1.4.9) [4]; EULAR (3–9-10) [2]; OARSI (Tables 2-3) [3]
19) It is advisable to refer the patient for arthroscopy surgery to reduce symptoms and start/continue treatment (reversed statement). NICE (1.4.10) [4]; EULAR (−); OARSI (−)
20) It is necessary to assess the impact of osteoarthritis on function, quality of life and disability. NICE (1.2.1) [4]; EULAR (1) [2]; OARSI (−)
21) At least 10–12 sessions are needed to ensure proper treatment for osteoarthritis. NICE (1.4.1) [4]; EULAR (6) [2]; OARSI (−)
22) In the treatment for osteoarthritis, the patient’s adherence to the treatment must be motivated. NICE (1.3.2–1.4.1–1.7.1) [4]; EULAR (−); OARSI (−)
23) Joint hyaluronic acid and/or corticosteroid infiltrations should be considered. NICE (1.5.12–1.5.13) [4]; EULAR (−); OARSI (Table 2) [3]
24) The supplements of chondroitin and glucosamine should be considered (reversed statement). NICE (1.4.5) [4]; EULAR (−); OARSI (−)
  1. Legend: (n), CPGs paragraph into which the statements were originally reported; (−), the CPGs did not adopt a position on that statement; [n], CPGs reference