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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the two study groups

From: Sagittal alignment changes and postoperative complications following surgery for adult spinal deformity in patients with Parkinson’s disease: a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study

  PD+ group PD− group p-value
Cases, n 27 206
Age at surgery (years) 70.6 ± 6.3 72.5 ± 8.5 0.18
Sex (male/female, n) 5/22 32/174 0.58
BMI 22.8 ± 4.2 23.2 ± 3.7 0.59
BMD (T-score) −1.900 ± 1.249 − 1.863 ± 0.924 0.93
Medications for PD
 Dopamine precursors (yes/no) 23/4 (85.2%)
 Dopamine agonists (yes/no) 8/19 (29.6%)
 Monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors (yes/no) 6/21 (22.2%)
 Other 4/23 (14.8%)
Medical comorbidities
 Diabetes (yes/no) 1/26 (3.7%) 22/184 (10.7%) 0.49
 Rheumatoid arthritis (yes/no) 0/27 9/197 (4.4%) 0.60
 Renal dysfunction (yes/no) 0/27 19/187 (9.2%) 0.14
 Cardiovascular disease (yes/no) 2/25 (7.4%) 26/180 (12.6%) 0.75
 Cerebrovascular disease (yes/no) 5/22 (18.5%) 14/192 (6.8%) 0.053
 Respiratory disease (yes/no) 0/27 21/185 (10.2%) 0.14
Follow-up duration (months) 50.3 ± 16.2 49.0 ± 14.1 0.68
Number of fixed levels 9.3 ± 2.6 7.8 ± 1.9 0.006
3CO (yes/no) 17/10 100/106 0.14
Etiology (post fracture/degenerative/previous lumbar fusion) 10/15/2 21/133/52 0.001
Fix to sacrum (yes/no) 22/5 (81.5%) 174/32 (84.1%) 0.78
Pre SVA (mm) 196.0 ± 63.7 135.4 ± 69.9 < 0.001
Pre LL (°) 2.1 ± 19.3 3.5 ± 20.5 0.75
Pre TLK (°) 18.1 ± 16.0 19.2 ± 17.0 0.28
Pre TK (°) 24.1 ± 15.4 27.4 ± 20.0 0.37
Pre SS (°) 17.1 ± 8.0 14.7 ± 11.4 0.34
Pre PT (°) 36.6 ± 8.6 34.5 ± 13.2 0.47
PI (°) 53.6 ± 9.6 49.8 ± 9.1 0.088
  1. 3CO Three-column osteotomy, BMD Bone mineral density, BMI Bone mass index, LL Lumbar lordosis, PD Parkinson’s disease, PI Pelvic incidence, PT Pelvic tilt, SS Sacral slope, SVA Sagittal vertical axis, TK Thoracic kyphosis.