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Table 3 Clinical outcomes of patients in the two groups

From: Clinical impact and imaging results after a modified procedure of ACDF: a prospective case-controlled study based on ninety cases with two-year follow-up

Variable Spread group (n = 48) None-spread group (n = 42) P Value
JOA score, mean ± SD
 Pre. 11.35 ± 3.39 10.45 ± 3.20 .200
 Post. 1w 14.02 ± 2.49 12.71 ± 2.87 .023
 Post. 3 m 14.25 ± 2.52 13.74 ± 2.58 .344
 Post. 6 m 14.88 ± 2.40 14.36 ± 2.47 .317
 Post. 12 m 15.23 ± 1.89 15.10 ± 2.60 .779
 Post. 24 m 14.46 ± 2.18 14.45 ± 2.74 .991
VAS, mean ± SD
 Pre. 7.21 ± 1.29 6.86 ± 1.34 .208
 Post. 1w 5.96 ± 1.54 5.07 ± 1.30 .004
 Post. 3 m 4.71 ± 1.37 4.74 ± 1.81 .930
 Post. 6 m 4.56 ± 1.17 5.07 ± 1.96 .132
 Post. 12 m 4.02 ± 0.81 3.88 ± 1.52 .581
 Post. 24 m 3.46 ± 1.29 3.14 ± 1.26 .245
Complications
 PE, No. (%) 0 0  
 SSI, No. (%) 2 (4.17%) 1 (2.38%)  
 NI, No. (%) 1 (2.08%) 0  
 SD, No. (%) 2 (4.17%) 3 (7.14%)  
 Hematoma, No. (%) 3 (6.25%) 1 (2.38%)  
 CSFL, No. (%) 0 1 (2.38%)  
 Mortality, No. (%) 0 0  
  1. (PE pulmonary embolism, SSI surgical site infection, NI neurovascular injury, SD swallowing discomfort, CSFL cerebrospinal fluid leakage)