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Table 2 The material properties of the spinal soft tissues and hard tissues used in the finite element model

From: Biomechanical effect of different plate-to-disc distance on surgical and adjacent segment in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion - a finite element analysis

Description Element Type Young’s Modulus (MPa) Poisson’s Ratio
Cortical bone 3-noded triangular shell 12,000 0.3
Cancellous bone 4-noded tetrahedron 100 0.2
Posterior elements 4-noded tetrahedron 3500 0.25
Facet cartilage 4-noded tetrahedron 10.4 0.4
End plate 4-noded tetrahedron 600 0.3
Nucleus pulposus 8-noded brick 1 0.49
Annulus ground substance 8-noded brick 3.4 0.4
Annulus fibers Truss (tension-only) 450 0.45
Titanium plate 4-noded tetrahedron 120,000 0.3
Titanium screw 4-noded tetrahedron 120,000 0.3